To assess 10-year trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in Novosibirsk population.
The data of three population surveys (a total of 9714 men and women aged 25-64 years) carried out according to WHO MONICA program.
Obesity prevalence among males in 1985-1989 tended to a small rise without changes during subsequent 5 years. In females the prevalence of obesity and overweight decreased in 1985-1994.
10-year trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity were insignificant in men and beneficial in women of Novosibirsk population while the frequency of increased body mass in women remains relatively high.
The values of arterial blood pressure according to the Yakutsk population screening at the age of 60 and older have been studied. The average values of systolic arterial pressure (both sexes--148, men--145, women--151 mm Hg) are higher than normal values specified by Society of Cardiology of Russian Federation. Long-living persons show its decrease that is more marked in men. The average values of diastolic arterial pressure (both sexes--87, men--88, women--87 mm Hg) correspond to the category of high normal pressure and are decreasing with age to more extent in men than in women. The average values of pulse pressure in elderly and senile age are higher than normal values (both sexes--61, men--57, women--64 mm Hg) with a tendency to grow by 90 years old. Differences in arterial blood pressure levels are educed in gerontic persons depending on presence of abdominal obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, smoking and family anamnesis with cases of hypertension.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the blood lipid profile, oxidative-antioxidative status of low density lipoproteins (LDL) in old people and long-living people in Novosibirsk. Eighty nine persons from Novosibirsk Veteran House (23 men and 66 women) at the age of 83-105 (average 92.0 +/- 4.0 years old) were included into the study. They were divided into two groups. The group of old people included 12 person at the age of 75-89. The group of long-living people included 77 person at the age of 90-105. The control group consisted of 90 healthy subjects at the age of 36-59. TCH, CH-HDL and TG were measured using biochemical enzyme methods. LDL were isolated from serum by heparin-precipitation method. The initial level of peroxidation lipid (POL) products in LDL and oxidative resistance of precipitated LDL in vitro were evaluated. Concentrations of liposoluble antioxidants (a-tocopherol and retinol) in precipitated LDL were measured by spectro-fluorimetrical methods. The level of CH-HDL was low (
Contents of cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol as well as phospholipid and fatty acid compositions of phosphatidyl cholines and sphingomyelins in low density lipoproteins (LDL) were studied in blood plasma of Chukot aborigenes--Eskimos as compared with Moscow inhabitants. In Eskimos content of HDL cholesterol was higher but concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides was lower in blood plasma. In LDL concentration of sphingomyelins was increased and fatty acid composition of phosphatidyl cholines and sphingomyelins was altered where amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids was elevated (20:5 + 22:5 + 22:6). The specific characteristics of the LDL phospholipids observed in Eskimos might be responsible for the higher liquid properties of the surface monolayer in the lipoproteins; this alteration might be important for the lipoprotein properties and transformation as well as for the properties of membrane-bound enzymes, for synthesis of thromboxane and prostacyclins.
A comprehensive clinical and instrumental study involving the collection of complaints, resting ECG records, bicycler ergometry, Holter monitoring, echocardiography was performed in 80 Novosibirsk's residents (66 males and 14 females) aged 25-64 years who had the prolonged Q-T interval syndrome detected during a population survey. ECG frequently showed the early ventricular repolarization syndrome (23%) in males and left ventricular hypertrophy (36%) in females. Bicycle ergometry increased Q-T interval in 11% of males and decreased or unchanged it in the remaining cases. Holter monitoring revealed cardiac arrhythmias in 39% of males and 64% of females, supraventricular and monotopic ventricular premature beats being prevalent. The method was found to have advantages in detecting arrhythmias. Echocardiography performed in males made it possible to identify ventricular septum hypertrophy (40%) and mitral valve prolapse (20%). The examinees with the prolonged Q-T interval syndrome mostly had arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, and alcoholic cardiomyopathy.
A lower content of total cholesterol, triglycerides, cholesterol of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and apo B as well as a higher content of cholesterol in high density lipoproteins (HDL) were found in coast and continental Chuckchee land inhabitants as compared with moscowites, which are dissimilar in consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3. At the same time, the lower content of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and higher concentration of HDL cholesterol were detected in blood plasma of coast inhabitants as compared with continental residents of the Chuckchee land, while content of apo B and triglycerides was similar. Concentration of apoA-I was the same in all three groups of the persons examined. The diet of coast Chuchkchee land inhabitants, involving the higher level of unsaturated fatty acids n-3, resulted in the higher ratio between HDL cholesterol and apoA-I, in the higher part of unsaturated fatty acids n-3 in blood plasma lipids (phospholipids and cholesterol esters) and erythrocytes; it led to a relative increase of sphingomyelin and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and to a decrease of phosphatidylcholine in HDL subfractions. The data obtained suggest that the diet, enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3, exhibited the generalized effect on fatty acid composition of a number of cell membranes and, hence, on their functions.
The results of a combination of functional electrocardiographic tests were compared with those of a WHO questionnaire for angina of effort. Coronary disease was verified in 37% of patients with a double diagnosis of angina of effort, and in 100% of cases of angina of effort combined with ischemic electrocardiographic changes.
Longevity indexes LI2 and LI3 (subjects aged 90 and more and 100 and more, respectively, among subjects of 60 and older) were compared in all administrative units on the basis of results of 1989 Census of the population and data of the Central Statistical Office. These values reduce from West to East: LI2 in Western Siberia is equal to 8.48/1000, LI3 to 0.45/1000, in Eastern Siberia these values are 7.48 and 0.35/1000, in the Far East 5.20 and 0.31/1000, in Russia on the whole 9.16 and 0.47/1000, respectively. The territories with relatively high LI2 values were the Aghinsk Buryat Autonomous Territory (11.42/1000), Yakutia (10.79/1000), Altai (9.41/1000).