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The fate of the Arctic seaweed Fucus distichus under climate change: an ecological niche modeling approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271924
Source
Ecol Evol. 2016 Mar;6(6):1712-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
Alexander Jueterbock
Irina Smolina
James A Coyer
Galice Hoarau
Source
Ecol Evol. 2016 Mar;6(6):1712-24
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Rising temperatures are predicted to melt all perennial ice cover in the Arctic by the end of this century, thus opening up suitable habitat for temperate and subarctic species. Canopy-forming seaweeds provide an ideal system to predict the potential impact of climate-change on rocky-shore ecosystems, given their direct dependence on temperature and their key role in the ecological system. Our primary objective was to predict the climate-change induced range-shift of Fucus distichus, the dominant canopy-forming macroalga in the Arctic and subarctic rocky intertidal. More specifically, we asked: which Arctic/subarctic and cold-temperate shores of the northern hemisphere will display the greatest distributional change of F. distichus and how will this affect niche overlap with seaweeds from temperate regions? We used the program MAXENT to develop correlative ecological niche models with dominant range-limiting factors and 169 occurrence records. Using three climate-change scenarios, we projected habitat suitability of F. distichus - and its niche overlap with three dominant temperate macroalgae - until year 2200. Maximum sea surface temperature was identified as the most important factor in limiting the fundamental niche of F. distichus. Rising temperatures were predicted to have low impact on the species' southern distribution limits, but to shift its northern distribution limits poleward into the high Arctic. In cold-temperate to subarctic regions, new areas of niche overlap were predicted between F. distichus and intertidal macroalgae immigrating from the south. While climate-change threatens intertidal seaweeds in warm-temperate regions, seaweed meadows will likely flourish in the Arctic intertidal. Although this enriches biodiversity and opens up new seaweed-harvesting grounds, it will also trigger unpredictable changes in the structure and functioning of the Arctic intertidal ecosystem.
PubMed ID
27087933 View in PubMed
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Genetics redraws pelagic biogeography of Calanus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292203
Source
Biol Lett. 2017 Dec; 13(12):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
Marvin Choquet
Maja Hatlebakk
Anusha K S Dhanasiri
Ksenia Kosobokova
Irina Smolina
Janne E Søreide
Camilla Svensen
Webjørn Melle
Slawomir Kwasniewski
Ketil Eiane
Malin Daase
Vigdis Tverberg
Stig Skreslet
Ann Bucklin
Galice Hoarau
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, Nord University, 8049 Bodø, Norway marvin.choquet@nord.no.
Source
Biol Lett. 2017 Dec; 13(12):
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Atlantic Ocean
Copepoda - anatomy & histology - classification - genetics
Genetic markers
INDEL Mutation
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Abstract
Planktonic copepods of the genus Calanus play a central role in North Atlantic/Arctic marine food webs. Here, using molecular markers, we redrew the distributional ranges of Calanus species inhabiting the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and revealed much wider and more broadly overlapping distributions than previously described. The Arctic shelf species, C. glacialis, dominated the zooplankton assemblage of many Norwegian fjords, where only C. finmarchicus has been reported previously. In these fjords, high occurrences of the Arctic species C. hyperboreus were also found. Molecular markers revealed that the most common method of species identification, prosome length, cannot reliably discriminate the species in Norwegian fjords. Differences in degree of genetic differentiation among fjord populations of the two species suggested that C. glacialis is a more permanent resident of the fjords than C. finmarchicus We found no evidence of hybridization between the species. Our results indicate a critical need for the wider use of molecular markers to reliably identify and discriminate these morphologically similar copepod species, which serve as important indicators of climate responses.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29263132 View in PubMed
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Genetics redraws pelagic biogeography of Calanus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287749
Source
Biol Lett. 2017 Dec;13(12)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
Marvin Choquet
Maja Hatlebakk
Anusha K S Dhanasiri
Ksenia Kosobokova
Irina Smolina
Janne E Søreide
Camilla Svensen
Webjørn Melle
Slawomir Kwasniewski
Ketil Eiane
Malin Daase
Vigdis Tverberg
Stig Skreslet
Ann Bucklin
Galice Hoarau
Source
Biol Lett. 2017 Dec;13(12)
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Planktonic copepods of the genus Calanus play a central role in North Atlantic/Arctic marine food webs. Here, using molecular markers, we redrew the distributional ranges of Calanus species inhabiting the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and revealed much wider and more broadly overlapping distributions than previously described. The Arctic shelf species, C. glacialis, dominated the zooplankton assemblage of many Norwegian fjords, where only C. finmarchicus has been reported previously. In these fjords, high occurrences of the Arctic species C. hyperboreus were also found. Molecular markers revealed that the most common method of species identification, prosome length, cannot reliably discriminate the species in Norwegian fjords. Differences in degree of genetic differentiation among fjord populations of the two species suggested that C. glacialis is a more permanent resident of the fjords than C. finmarchicus We found no evidence of hybridization between the species. Our results indicate a critical need for the wider use of molecular markers to reliably identify and discriminate these morphologically similar copepod species, which serve as important indicators of climate responses.
PubMed ID
29263132 View in PubMed
Less detail

In a comfort zone and beyond-Ecological plasticity of key marine mediators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303823
Source
Ecol Evol. 2020 Dec; 10(24):14067-14081
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2020
Author
Emilia Trudnowska
Kaja Balazy
Joanna Ston-Egiert
Irina Smolina
Thomas Brown
Marta Gluchowska
Author Affiliation
Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences Sopot Poland.
Source
Ecol Evol. 2020 Dec; 10(24):14067-14081
Date
Dec-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Copepods of the genus Calanus are the key components of zooplankton. Understanding their response to a changing climate is crucial to predict the functioning of future warmer high-latitude ecosystems. Although specific Calanus species are morphologically very similar, they have different life strategies and roles in ecosystems. In this study, C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis were thoroughly studied with regard to their plasticity in morphology and ecology both in their preferred original water mass (Atlantic vs. Arctic side of the Polar Front) and in suboptimal conditions (due to, e.g., temperature, turbidity, and competition in Hornsund fjord). Our observations show that "at the same place and time," both species can reach different sizes, take on different pigmentation, be in different states of population development, utilize different reproductive versus lipid accumulation strategies, and thrive on different foods. Size was proven to be a very mutable morphological trait, especially with regard to reduced length of C. glacialis. Both species exhibited pronounced red pigmentation when inhabiting their preferred water mass. In other domains, C. finmarchicus individuals tended to be paler than C. glacialis individuals. Gonad maturation and population development indicated mixed reproductive strategies, although a surprisingly similar population age structure of the two co-occurring species in the fjord was observed. Lipid accumulation was high and not species-specific, and its variability was due to diet differences of the populations. According to the stable isotope composition, both species had a more herbivorous diatom-based diet in their original water masses. While the diet of C. glacialis was rather consistent among the domains studied, C. finmarchicus exhibited much higher variability in its feeding history (based on lipid composition). Our results show that the plasticity of both Calanus species is indeed impressive and may be regulated differently, depending on whether they live in their "comfort zone" or beyond it.
PubMed ID
33391702 View in PubMed
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Variation in thermal stress response in two populations of the brown seaweed, Fucus distichus, from the Arctic and subarctic intertidal.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270320
Source
R Soc Open Sci. 2016 Jan;3(1):150429
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
Irina Smolina
Spyros Kollias
Alexander Jueterbock
James A Coyer
Galice Hoarau
Source
R Soc Open Sci. 2016 Jan;3(1):150429
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
It is unclear whether intertidal organisms are 'preadapted' to cope with the increase of temperature and temperature variability or if they are currently at their thermal tolerance limits. To address the dichotomy, we focused on an important ecosystem engineer of the Arctic intertidal rocky shores, the seaweed Fucus distichus and investigated thermal stress responses of two populations from different temperature regimes (Svalbard and Kirkenes, Norway). Thermal stress responses at 20°C, 24°C and 28°C were assessed by measuring photosynthetic performance and expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes (shsp, hsp90 and hsp70). We detected population-specific responses between the two populations of F. distichus, as the Svalbard population revealed a smaller decrease in photosynthesis performance but a greater activation of molecular defence mechanisms (indicated by a wider repertoire of HSP genes and their stronger upregulation) compared with the Kirkenes population. Although the temperatures used in our study exceed temperatures encountered by F. distichus at the study sites, we believe response to these temperatures may serve as a proxy for the species' potential to respond to climate-related stresses.
PubMed ID
26909170 View in PubMed
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