To evaluate the precision of the predictive cost-effectiveness assessment based on a phase 3 clinical trial with infliximab for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Swedish clinical practice.
Three patient cohorts were identified: the patients included in the infliximab trial (ATTRACT), patients initially treated with infliximab from a Swedish registry (STURE), a subset of these registry patients meeting inclusion criteria for the ATTRACT trial was the third patient cohort; two sets of assumptions in relation to the efficacy data were evaluated: "ATTRACT" (efficacy data over the duration of the trial) and "STURE" (effectiveness data over 10 years). In addition, the impact of including the placebo effect for the comparator was evaluated as a basis for the calculation of cost-effectiveness by using a modeling approach. A health economic model was utilized to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained.
The results for the three patient cohorts ranged from cost saving to a cost per QALY gained of €2,400 and €24,900 to €26,000 when the ATTRACT and STURE assumptions were used, respectively. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the inclusion of placebo effect had the largest effect on the results, increasing the cost per QALY gained to approximately €50,000 for all patient cohorts.
The treatment effect of infliximab measured in clinical trials and clinical practice results in comparable cost-effectiveness ratios, as calculated by using a modeling approach, whereas the assumptions made in relation to the effectiveness data and the chosen comparator have a large impact on the results. This reinforces the value of early modeling studies based on randomized clinical trial data, but assumptions made need to be carefully assessed.
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a novel intrauterine system, levonorgestrel intrauterine system 13.5 mg vs. oral contraception, in women at risk of unintended pregnancy.
Cost-effectiveness model using efficacy and discontinuation data from published articles.
Societal perspective including direct and indirect costs.
Women at risk of unintended pregnancy using reversible contraception.
An economic analysis was conducted by modeling the different health states of women using contraception over a 3-year period. Typical use efficacy rates from published articles were used to determine unintended pregnancy events. Discontinuation rates were used to account for method switching.
Cost-effectiveness was evaluated in terms of the incremental cost per unintended pregnancy avoided. In addition, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year was calculated.
Levonorgestrel intrauterine system 13.5 mg generated costs savings of € 311,000 in a cohort of 1000 women aged 15-44 years. In addition, there were fewer unintended pregnancies (55 vs. 294) compared with women using oral contraception.
Levonorgestrel intrauterine system 13.5 mg is a cost-effective method when compared with oral contraception. A shift in contraceptive use from oral contraception to long-acting reversible contraception methods could result in fewer unintended pregnancies, quality-adjusted life-year gains, as well as cost savings.
Objectives: To explore the cost-effectiveness of early biologic treatment, followed by dose-reduction in the case of remission, of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), compared with standard treatment with methotrexate (MTX) in Sweden.Methods: Effectiveness (function, disease activity, erosions) in early RA for both alternatives was taken from a clinical trial comparing etanercept (ETA) combined with MTX to MTX alone. Patients discontinuing treatment can switch to another or their first biologic treatment. For patients in remission (Disease Activity Score [DAS28]
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of infliximab use in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Swedish clinical practice, based on patient-level data from the Stockholm TNF-alpha follow-up registry (STURE). METHODS: Real-world patient-level data on infliximab use from the STURE registry were implemented in a Markov cohort model, in which health states of functional status were classified according to the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-five categories) and twenty-eight joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28). The transition probabilities between HAQ and DAS28 states during treatment, as well as discontinuation rates were modeled based on data from the registry for patients using infliximab as their first-line biological treatment. The transition probabilities in the comparator arm, that is, disease progression without biologic treatment, as well as mortality rates, costs, and utilities were based on published literature. The analysis had a societal cost perspective. RESULTS: Infliximab was associated with an incremental gain in quality-adjusted life-years of 1.02 and an incremental cost of 23,264 euros per patient compared with progression without biologic treatment, producing an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 22,830 euros (SEK211,136 or US$31,230). Sensitivity analyses of input parameters and model assumptions produced ICERs in the range from 18,000 euros to 47,000 euros. CONCLUSIONS: Results from base-case and sensitivity analyses fell well below established benchmarks for cost-effectiveness in Sweden. The results, therefore, indicated that infliximab treatment for RA has provided good societal value for money in Swedish clinical practice, compared with a scenario of no biological treatment.
The objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of TNF-inhibitors for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Swedish clinical practice, both as a first and second biological treatment, with or without the combination of conventional DMARDs. Further sub-group analysis of etanercept treatment was performed.
Patient level data were obtained from three regions of the Swedish Rheumatology Registers. The dataset contained 2,558 patients who had started TNF-inhibitor treatment, 1,049 with etanercept as their first biological treatment. A total of 819 patients had switched to a second TNF-inhibitor, of which 425 to etanercept. A Markov cohort model was used in which health states of disease severity were classified according to HAQ and DAS28. Disease progression and discontinuation rates of TNF-inhibitors were based on the registry and for the comparator on published literature. Mortality, costs and utilities were based on Swedish data. The main analysis had a societal perspective over 20 years and efficacy was measured in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs).
TNF-inhibitor treatment was associated with an increase in QALYs and an incremental cost compared to no biological treatment. The cost per QALY gained with the three TNF-inhibitors ranged from euro 50,000 to euro 120,000, with lower estimates for TNF-inhibitors used in combination with MTX and as a first biologic. At a progression of 0.045 for the comparator, most values remain within the accepted range for cost-effectiveness.
These results demonstrate that the cost per QALY for TNF-inhibitors was higher than in previous assessments based on registry data and that the results were sensitive to the HAQ progression of the comparator.
The objective of this study was to quantify the cost burden of unintended pregnancies (UPs) in Norway, and to estimate the proportion of costs due to imperfect contraceptive adherence. Potential cost savings that could arise from increased uptake of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) were also investigated.
An economic model was constructed to estimate the total number of UPs and associated costs in women aged 15-24 years. Adherence-related UP was estimated using 'perfect use' and 'typical use' contraceptive failure rates. Potential savings from increased use of LARC were projected by comparing current costs to projected costs following a 5% increase in LARC uptake.
Total costs from UP in women aged 15-24 years were estimated to be 164 million Norwegian Kroner (NOK), of which 81.7% were projected to be due to imperfect contraceptive adherence. A 5% increase in LARC uptake was estimated to generate cost savings of NOK 7.2 million in this group.
The cost of UP in Norway is substantial, with a large proportion of this cost arising from imperfect contraceptive adherence. Increased LARC uptake may reduce the UP incidence and generate cost savings for both the health care payer and contraceptive user.
The objective of this study was to estimate the level of health outcomes and resource use at a hospital level during the first year after a stroke, and to identify any potential differences between hospitals after adjusting for patient characteristics (case mix).
Data from several registries were linked on individual level: seven regional patient administrative systems, Swedish Stroke Register, Statistics Sweden, National Board of Health and Welfare and Swedish Social Insurance Agency. The study population consisted of 14?125 patients presenting with a stroke during 2010. Case-mix adjusted analysis of hospital differences was made on five aspects of health outcomes and resource use, 1?year post-stroke.
The results indicated that 26% of patients had died within a year of their stroke. Among those who survived, almost 5% had a recurrent stroke and 40% were left with a disability. On average, the patients had 22 inpatient days and 23 outpatient visits, and 13% had moved into special housing. There were significant variations between hospitals in levels of health outcomes achieved and resources used after adjusting for case mix.
Differences in health outcomes and resource use between hospitals were substantial and not entirely explained by differences in patient mix, indicating tendencies of unequal stroke care in Sweden. Healthcare organisation of regions and other structural features could potentially explain parts of the differences identified.