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The 1-month prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder according to DSM-IV, DSM-V, and ICD-10 among nondemented 75-year-olds in Gothenburg, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124775
Source
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012 Nov;20(11):963-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Nilsson, J
Östling, S
Waern, M
Karlsson, B
SigstrÖm, R
Xinxin Guo
Ingmar Skoog
Author Affiliation
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012 Nov;20(11):963-72
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alzheimer Disease - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Chronic Disease - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Female
Geriatric Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Health Behavior
Health Surveys
Humans
International Classification of Diseases
Interview, Psychological
Life Style
Male
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Phobic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden
Abstract
To examine the 1-month prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental, Fifth Edition (DSM-V), and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), and the overlap between these criteria, in a population sample of 75-year-olds. We also aimed to examine comorbidity between GAD and other psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression.
During 2005-2006, a comprehensive semistructured psychiatric interview was conducted by trained nurses in a representative population sample of 75-year-olds without dementia in Gothenburg, Sweden (N = 777; 299 men and 478 women). All psychiatric diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV. GAD was also diagnosed according to ICD-10 and DSM-V.
The 1-month prevalence of GAD was 4.1% (N = 32) according to DSM-IV, 4.5% (N = 35) according to DSM-V, and 3.7% (N = 29) according to ICD-10. Only 46.9% of those with DSM-IV GAD fulfilled ICD-10 criteria, and only 51.7% and 44.8% of those with ICD-10 GAD fulfilled DSM-IV/V criteria. Instead, 84.4% and 74.3% of those with DSM-IV/V GAD and 89.7% of those with ICD-10 GAD had depression. Also other psychiatric diagnoses were common in those with ICD-10 and DSM-IV GAD. Only a small minority with GAD, irrespective of criteria, had no other comorbid psychiatric disorder. ICD-10 GAD was related to an increased mortality rate.
While GAD was common in 75-year-olds, DSM-IV/V and ICD-10 captured different individuals. Current definitions of GAD may comprise two different expressions of the disease. There was greater congruence between GAD in either classification system and depression than between DSM-IV/V GAD and ICD-10 GAD, emphasizing the close link between these entities.
PubMed ID
22549369 View in PubMed
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A 9-year prospective population-based study on the association between the APOE*E4 allele and late-life depression in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274872
Source
Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Nov 15;78(10):730-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-2015
Author
Ingmar Skoog
Margda Waern
Paul Duberstein
Kaj Blennow
Henrik Zetterberg
Anne Börjesson-Hanson
Svante Östling
Xinxin Guo
Jürgen Kern
Deborah Gustafson
Pia Gudmundsson
Thomas Marlow
Silke Kern
Source
Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Nov 15;78(10):730-6
Date
Nov-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Apolipoprotein E4 - genetics
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - genetics
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Late Onset Disorders - epidemiology - genetics
Male
Prospective Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
It is well established that there is an association between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele (APOE*E4) and Alzheimer's disease. It is less clear whether there is also an association with geriatric depression. We examined the relationship between APOE*E4 and 5-year incidence of depression in a Swedish population-based sample of older adults without dementia and excluding older adults who developed dementia within 4 years after the diagnosis of depression.
In 2000-2001, 839 women and men (age range, 70-92 years; mean age, 73.8 years) free from dementia and depression underwent neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological examinations and genotyping of the APOE*E4 allele. Follow-up evaluations were conducted in 2005 and 2009.The association between APOE*E4 allele and 5-year incidence of depression was examined, while avoiding possible confounding effects of clinical or preclinical dementia by excluding participants who had dementia at study entry, subsequently developed dementia during the 9-year follow-up period, or had a decline in Mini-Mental State Examination score of =5 points.
Among subjects without depression at study entry and without dementia or significant cognitive decline during the subsequent 9 years, APOE*E4 was prospectively associated with more severe depressive symptoms (b = 1.56, p = .007), incident minor depression (odds ratio = 1.99 [confidence interval = 1.11-3.55], p = .020), and any depression (odds ratio = 1.75 [confidence interval = 1.01-3.03], p = .048).
The presence of the APOE*E4 allele predicted future depression in this Swedish population study, even after excluding depressed individuals who later developed dementia, suggesting that the APOE*E4 allele could potentially identify people at high risk for clinically significant depression.
Notes
Comment In: Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Nov 15;78(10):670-126497282
PubMed ID
25708227 View in PubMed
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A 10-Year Follow-Up of Adiposity and Dementia in Swedish Adults Aged 70 Years and Older.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300956
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 63(4):1325-1335
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Ilse A C Arnoldussen
Valter Sundh
Kristoffer Bäckman
Silke Kern
Svante Östling
Kaj Blennow
Henrik Zetterberg
Ingmar Skoog
Amanda J Kiliaan
Deborah R Gustafson
Author Affiliation
Department of Anatomy, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 63(4):1325-1335
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adiponectin - blood
Adiposity
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anthropometry
Body mass index
Dementia - blood - epidemiology - pathology
Fasting
Female
Humans
Independent living
Leptin - blood
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
Adiposity measured in mid- or late-life and estimated using anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), or metabolic markers such as blood leptin and adiponectin levels, is associated with late-onset dementia risk. However, during later life, this association may reverse and aging- and dementia-related processes may differentially affect adiposity measures.
We explored associations of concurrent BMI, WHR, and blood leptin and high molecular weight adiponectin levels with dementia occurrence.
924 Swedish community-dwelling elderly without dementia, aged 70 years and older, systematically-sampled by birth day and birth year population-based in the Gothenburg city region of Sweden. The Gothenburg Birth Cohort Studies are designed for evaluating risk and protective factors for dementia. All dementias diagnosed after age 70 for 10 years were identified. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to predict dementia occurrence between 2000-2005, 2005-2010, and 2000-2010 after excluding prevalent baseline (year 2000) dementias. Baseline levels of BMI, WHR, leptin, and adiponectin were used.
Within 5 years of baseline, low BMI (
PubMed ID
29758945 View in PubMed
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37 Years of Body Mass Index and Dementia: Effect Modification by the APOE Genotype: Observations from the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275033
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;48(4):1119-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Kristoffer Bäckman
Erik Joas
Margda Waern
Svante Östling
Xinxin Guo
Kaj Blennow
Ingmar Skoog
Deborah R Gustafson
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;48(4):1119-27
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alleles
Apolipoprotein E4 - genetics
Body mass index
Body Weight - genetics
Dementia - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Overweight and obesity in mid- and late-life may increase risk for dementia, whereas a decline in body weight or body mass index (BMI) and underweight in years preceding a clinical dementia diagnosis are also associated with dementia. Little is known about the modifying effect of the APOE genotype, a major susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's disease (AD), on the BMI-dementia adult life course trajectory.
We evaluated the exposure, BMI, in relationship to the outcome, clinical dementia, over 37 years, considering the effect modification of the APOE ?4 allele.
The Prospective Population Study of Women (PPSW) in Sweden is a systematic sample of 1462 women born 1908, 1914, 1918, 1922, and 1930 and aged 38-60 years at baseline. Examinations occurred in 1968, 1974, 1980, 1992, 2000, and 2005; 559 women had information on dementia, BMI, and APOE ?4 allele status, in addition to covariates. Statistical analyses were conducted using mixed effects regression models.
Trajectories of BMI over 37 years differed by APOE ?4 allele status. While women gained BMI similarly from mid-life to age 70 years, women with at least one APOE ?4 allele experienced BMI decline more quickly after age 70 years compared to women without an APOE ?4 allele. However, upon stratifying the sample by dementia occurrence, it appeared that dementia drove the overall BMI-trajectory. There was a main effect of age, interactions of age by APOE ?4 allele status, and age by presence versus absence of dementia.
Women with similar average BMI at mid-life exhibited different BMI trajectories in relation to dementia occurrence. In addition, the pattern of BMI decline in late-life differed on the basis of APOE ?4 allele possession. Thus, these data suggest roles for both dementia- and APOE-associated changes in BMI during the adult life course.
PubMed ID
26402098 View in PubMed
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37 years of body mass index and dementia: observations from the prospective population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130808
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;28(1):163-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Deborah R Gustafson
Kristoffer Bäckman
Erik Joas
Margda Waern
Svante Östling
Xinxin Guo
Ingmar Skoog
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurochemistry and Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. deborah.gustafson@neuro.gu.se
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;28(1):163-71
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Dementia - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance - methods
Prospective Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Level of adiposity is linked to dementia in epidemiological studies. Overweight and obesity in mid- and late-life may increase risk for dementia, whereas decline in body weight or body mass index (BMI) and underweight in years preceding and at the time of a dementia diagnosis may also relate to dementia. Longitudinal studies with sufficient follow-up are necessary to estimate trajectories that allow better understanding of the relationship between adiposity indices and dementia over the life course. We evaluated the natural history of BMI in relationship to clinical dementia over 37 years in the Prospective Population Study of Women (PPSW) in Sweden. PPSW is a systematic sample of 1462 women born 1908, 1914, 1918, 1922, and 1930 and aged 38-60 years at baseline. Examinations occurred in 1968, 1974, 1980, 1992, 2000, and 2005. Statistical analyses were conducted using mixed effects regression models. Trajectories of BMI over 37 years as a function of age differed between women who did versus did not develop dementia. Women developing dementia evidenced a lesser increase in BMI from age 38 to 70 years. After age 70, the BMI slope decreased similarly (no "accelerated decline") irrespective of dementia status. A lower BMI before and during dementia onset was observed. Women with similar BMI at mid-life exhibited a different pattern of BMI change as they approached late-life that was related to dementia onset. BMI may be a potential marker of dementia-related neuropathologies in the brain. Dementia is related to a common risk factor, BMI, from mid-to late-life.
PubMed ID
21965312 View in PubMed
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Albumin and depression in elderly stroke survivors: An observational cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274259
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2015 Dec 15;230(2):658-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2015
Author
Michaela C Pascoe
Ingmar Skoog
Christian Blomstrand
Thomas Linden
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2015 Dec 15;230(2):658-63
Date
Dec-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Albumins - analysis
Cohort Studies
Depression - blood - etiology
Female
Humans
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Stroke - blood - psychology
Survivors - psychology
Sweden
Abstract
Post-stroke depression affects approximately one third of stroke survivors. In non-stroke affected populations, depressive symptomatology is associated with hypoalbuminemia. This is also common among stroke survivors and associated with poor outcome and increased mortality. The role of stroke-associated hypoalbuminemia in post-stroke depression is not clear. We aimed to explore the relationship between serum albumin and post-stroke depression, as measured 20 months post-stroke.
Observational cohort study of elderly Swedish patients drawn from the 'Gothenburg 70+ Stroke Study' (n=149) and assessed at 20 months after stroke onset. Serum albumin was drawn from venous blood and analysed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and functional impairment was assessed using the Barthel Index.
Analysis of covariance analysis showed that serum albumin levels were associated with depressive symptoms at 20 months after stroke. Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that disability scores at 3 days were associated with depressive symptoms at 20 months after stroke and after accounting for the age covariate. Stroke survivors were not clinically deficient in serum albumin.
Low serum albumin appears to be associated with depressive symptoms in elderly individuals long term post-stroke.
PubMed ID
26520562 View in PubMed
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Alcohol use disorder in elderly suicide attempters: a comparison study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116972
Source
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;21(2):196-203
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Johanna Morin
Stefan Wiktorsson
Thomas Marlow
Pernille J Olesen
Ingmar Skoog
Margda Waern
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. morin.johanna@gmail.com
Source
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;21(2):196-203
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcohol-Related Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Depression - complications - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Neuropsychological Tests
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Risk factors
Suicide, Attempted - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Abstract
To compare lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) in older adults who were hospitalized in connection with a suicide attempt and in a population comparison group, as well as to compare previous suicidal behavior in attempters with and without AUD.
Case-comparison.
Five hospitals in Western Sweden.
Persons 70 years or older, who were treated in a hospital because of a suicide attempt during 2003-2006 were recruited. Of 133 eligible participants, 103 participants were enrolled (47 men, 56 women, mean age 80 years, response rate 77%). Four comparison subjects per case were randomly selected among participants in our late-life population studies.
Lifetime history of AUD in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, was discerned on the basis of interview data, case record review, and the hospital discharge register. Depression symptoms were rated using the Montgomery-?sberg Rating Scale.
AUD was observed in 26% of the cases and in 4% of the comparison group (odds ratio [OR]: 10.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9-22.5). Associations were noted in men (OR: 9.5; 95% CI: 4.0-22.8) and women (OR: 12.0; 95% CI: 2.4-59.5). More than half of the cases with AUD and?a third of those without AUD had made at least one prior suicide attempt. In these, AUD was associated with a longer interval between the first attempt and the index attempt.
A strong association between AUD and hospital-treated suicide attempts was noted in both sexes in this northern European setting. Given the high rates of suicide worldwide in this fast-growing and vulnerable group, comparison studies in other settings are needed.
PubMed ID
23343493 View in PubMed
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An 18-year follow-up of overweight and risk of Alzheimer disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67321
Source
Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jul 14;163(13):1524-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-14-2003
Author
Deborah Gustafson
Elisabet Rothenberg
Kaj Blennow
Bertil Steen
Ingmar Skoog
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, USA. deb.gustafson@neuro.gu.se
Source
Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jul 14;163(13):1524-8
Date
Jul-14-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - epidemiology - etiology
Analysis of Variance
Body mass index
Chi-Square Distribution
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Obesity - complications
Proportional Hazards Models
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are epidemic in Western societies and constitute a major public health problem because of adverse effects on vascular health. Vascular factors may play a role in the development of a rapidly growing disease of late life, Alzheimer disease (AD). Using body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), we examined whether overweight is a risk factor for dementia and AD. METHODS: The relationship between BMI and dementia risk was investigated in a representative cohort of 392 nondemented Swedish adults who were followed up from age 70 to 88 years, with the use of neuropsychiatric, anthropometric, and other measurements. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses included BMI, blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, cigarette smoking, socioeconomic status, and treatment for hypertension. RESULTS: During the 18-year follow-up (4184.8 risk-years), 93 participants were diagnosed as having dementia. Women who developed dementia between ages 79 and 88 years were overweight, with a higher average BMI at age 70 years (27.7 vs 25.7; P =.007), 75 years (27.9 vs 25.0; P
Notes
Comment In: Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jan 12;164(1):109-10; author reply 11014718338
PubMed ID
12860573 View in PubMed
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Antidepressants and suicidal behaviour in late life: a prospective population-based study of use patterns in new users aged 75 and above.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294436
Source
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Feb; 74(2):201-208
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2018
Author
Khedidja Hedna
Karolina Andersson Sundell
Armina Hamidi
Ingmar Skoog
Sara Gustavsson
Margda Waern
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, SE-413 45, Gothenburg, Sweden. khedidja.hedna@neuro.gu.se.
Source
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Feb; 74(2):201-208
Date
Feb-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antidepressive Agents - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Male
Nootropic Agents - pharmacology
Prospective Studies
Protective factors
Risk factors
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
To investigate associations between antidepressant use patterns and risk of fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviours in older adults who initiated antidepressant therapy.
A national population-based cohort study conducted among Swedish residents aged = 75 years who initiated antidepressant treatment. Patients who filled antidepressant prescriptions between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013 (N = 185,225) were followed until December 31, 2014. Sub-hazard ratios of suicides and suicide attempts associated with use patterns of antidepressants, adjusting for potential confounders such as serious depression were calculated using the Fine and Gray regression models.
During follow-up, 295 suicides and 654 suicide attempts occurred. Adjusted sub-hazard ratios (aSHRs) were increased for both outcomes in those who switched to another antidepressant (aSHR for suicide 2.42, 95% confidence interval 1.65 to 3.55, and for attempt 1.76, 1.32 to 2.34). Elevated suicide risks were also observed in those who concomitantly filled anxiolytics (1.54, 1.20 to 1.96) and hypnotics (2.20, 1.69 to 2.85). Similar patterns were observed for the outcome suicide attempt. Decreased risk of attempt was observed among those with concomitant use of anti-dementia drugs (0.40, 0.27 to 0.59).
Switching antidepressants, as well as concomitant use of anxiolytics or hypnotics, may constitute markers of increased risk of suicidal behaviours in those who initiate antidepressant treatment in very late life. Future research should consider indication biases and the clinical characteristics of patients initiating antidepressant therapy.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29103090 View in PubMed
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Anxiety symptoms and suicidal feelings in a population sample of 70-year-olds without dementia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123921
Source
Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 Nov;24(11):1865-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Mattias Jonson
Ingmar Skoog
Thomas Marlow
Madeleine Mellqvist Fässberg
Margda Waern
Author Affiliation
Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 Nov;24(11):1865-71
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age of Onset
Aged
Anxiety - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cost of Illness
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Depression - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Male
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Public Health Surveillance
Socioeconomic Factors
Suicidal ideation
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The role of anxiety in late-life suicidal behavior has received relatively little attention. The aim was to explore the association between anxiety symptoms and suicidal feelings in a population sample of 70-year-olds without dementia, and to test whether associations would be independent of depression.
Face-to-face interviews (N = 560) were carried out by psychiatric nurses and past month symptoms were rated with the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS). The Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA) was derived from the CPRS to quantify anxiety symptom burden. Past month suicidal feelings were evaluated with the Paykel questions.
Anxiety symptom burden was associated with suicidal feelings and the association remained after adjusting for major depression. One individual BSA item (Inner tension) was independently associated with suicidal feelings in a multivariate regression model. The association did not remain, however, in a final model in which depression symptoms replaced depression diagnosis.
Results from this population study suggest an association between anxiety and suicidal feelings in older adults. The role of anxiety and depression symptoms needs further clarification in the study of suicidal behavior in late life.
PubMed ID
22647285 View in PubMed
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64 records – page 1 of 7.