The aim was to test sampling and explore sample characteristics in a pilot study using a case management intervention for older people with functional dependency and repeated contact with the healthcare services as well as to investigate the effects of the intervention on perceived health and depressed mood after 3 months. The aim was also to explore internal consistency in the life satisfaction index Z, activities of daily living-staircase and Geriatric Depression Scale-20.
This pilot study was carried out in a randomised controlled design with repeated follow-ups. In all, 46 people were consecutively and randomly assigned to either an intervention (n = 23) or a control (n = 23) group. Two nurses worked as case managers and carried out the intervention, which consisted of four parts.
No differences were found between the groups at baseline. The results showed the participants had low life satisfaction (median 14 vs. 12), several health complaints (median 11) and a high score on the Geriatric Depression Scale (median 6) at baseline, indicating the risk of depression. No significant effects were observed regarding depressed mood or perceived health between or within groups at follow-up after 3 months. Cronbach's alpha showed satisfactory internal consistency for group comparisons.
The sampling procedure led to similar groups. The life satisfaction, functional dependency and symptoms of depression measures were reliable to use. No changes in perceived health and symptoms of depression were found after 3 months, indicating that it may be too early to expect effects. The low depression score is noteworthy and requires further research.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare oral health status on a geriatric rehabilitation ward among patients who were assessed using the Revised Oral Assessment Guide (ROAG) on admission and at discharge; and to investigate in what respect the oral health procedures (OHP) suggested in ROAG were applied when oral health problems were detected. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Registered nurses on the ward performed oral health assessments using ROAG with 107 patients on admission and at discharge. When oral health problems were detected measures to be taken were suggested using ROAG. RESULTS: Oral health problems were common among the patients on admission (86%), as well as at discharge (51%). The frequency of the problems was significantly lower at discharge compared to admission. The OHP that were recommended in ROAG were completely followed when saliva flow-related problems were detected. Regarding other oral health problems, measures other than the recommended ones were often performed. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the oral health was better at the end of the hospital stay compared to admission.
The aim of this study was to investigate determinants of help from informal or formal caregivers or a combination of both among people aged 75 or more and living at home, and the characteristics of the recipients, the help they received and their quality of life (QoL). The sample for this study was 448 elderly people, 75-99 years of age, living at home and receiving help with activities for daily living, instrumental or both instrumental and personal. Regression analysis showed high QoL not to be significantly related to who was providing the help, whilst it was related to higher age, living with someone, lower number of complaints and managing to be alone at home. Multinomial regression analysis showed age, number of children, number of complaints, the ability to stay alone at home and living alone to predict receiving help from different kinds of caregivers. Recipients receiving help from informal caregivers were younger, more often married and living together with someone, whilst those receiving help from both informal and formal caregivers had more help with instrumental and personal activities for daily living and were not able to stay alone at home as much as those receiving help from other kinds of caregivers. Those receiving help from formal caregivers had fewer children, were single and were living alone more often than the other recipients. Thus the responsibility for help for elderly people rests heavily on informal caregivers, whom it seems essential to support. As public service at home is preferably given to those living alone or able to stay alone at home, those without relatives may not be able to remain at home when their need of help increases.
Although the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) is frequently used to identify the impact on daily living caused by health problems such as diseases, impaired eyesight or hearing, it is still not well known what makes people feel hindered in daily living with more or less inability to perform ADL. The aim of this study was to investigate feeling hindered by health problems in daily living among people (n = 958, 60-96 years) in relation to ADL capacity, health problems as well as social and financial resources, sense of coherence and life satisfaction. The data are taken from a baseline survey in one of the four included centres (Blekinge) of the longitudinal multicentre cohort study, The Swedish National Study on Aging and Care. The result showed that people felt hindered by their health problems despite no impairment in ADL capacity. Feeling greatly hindered by health problems was associated with factors linked to mobility but also to fatigue, no help when needed, and avoiding being outdoors due to fear of falling. Factors associated with feeling greatly hindered differed depending on whether people were impaired in ADL capacity or not. In people with excellent ADL capacity feeling hindered was associated with picking up things from the floor and rising from a chair and fatigue, whereas avoiding being outdoors, no help when needed and rising from a chair were found to be associated with feeling hindered by health problems among people with impaired ADL capacity. Combining people's ADL capacity with questions about feeling hindered may provide knowledge of determinant factors of feeling hindered in relation to ADL capacity, impaired or not, to identify people in need of rehabilitation or other interventions.
Doctoral Student, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden and Faculty of Nursing, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland and The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Professor, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden and The Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden Lecturer, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Senior Lecturer, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
hjaltadóttir i., hallberg i.r., ekwall a.k. & nyberg p. (2011) Health status and functional profile at admission of nursing home residents in Iceland over 11-year period. International Journal of Older People Nursing doi: 10.1111/j.1748-3743.2011.00287.x Background. The knowledge over time of the health status and changes in care needs of newly admitted nursing home residents is limited. Objectives. To investigate trends in residents' health status and functional profile at admission to nursing homes and compare rural and capital areas in Iceland over an 11-year period. Design. Retrospective analysis of nursing home data over 11 years (1996-2006). Participants. Residents, who had been assessed with the Minimum Data Set assessment within 90 days from admittance (n = 2206). Method. Non-parametric tests for descriptive statistics and linear regressions were used to analyse time trends. Results. The mean age ranged from 80.1 to 82.8, and women accounted for 52.7% to 67.1%. The level of independency indicated intact cognitive performance in 28.6-61.4% and in 42.5-68% in activities of daily living performance. A weak, but significant, linear trend was seen in residents' health becoming less stable, their cognitive performance improving, more pain being reported and greater participation in social activities over the 11 years. Conclusion. Some residents might have stayed at home longer had they been given appropriate home care and the opportunity of rehabilitation. Pain management and social activities are areas where more staff knowledge seems to be needed. Implications for practice. Resources to enable old people to remain at home need to be explored before their entry into nursing homes. Whereas providing services at the appropriate level is important for society as well as older people.
Few studies have investigated the subsequent rate of hospital and outpatient clinic utilization in those who receive continuing care and have documented frequent usage over one year. Such knowledge may be helpful in identifying those who would benefit from preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the subsequent rate of hospital and outpatient clinic utilization among older people with 0, 1, 2, 3 or more hospital stays in the first year following the initiation of continuing care. A further aim was to compare these groups regarding demographic data, health complaints, functional and cognitive ability, informal care and mortality.
A total of 1079 people, aged 65 years or older, who received a decision regarding the initiation of continuing care during the years 2001, 2002 or 2003 were investigated. Four groups were created based on whether they had 0, 1, 2 or = 3 hospital stays in the first year following the initiation of continuing care and were investigated regarding the rate of hospital and outpatient clinic utilization in the subsequent 3-5 years.
Fifty seven percent of the sample had no hospital stay during the first year following the initiation of continuing care, 20% had 1 stay, 10% had 2 stays and 13% had three or more hospital stays (range: 3-13). Those with = 3 hospital stays in the first year continued to have the significantly highest rate of hospital and outpatient care utilization in the subsequent years. This group accounted for 57% of hospital stays in the first year, 27% in the second year and 18% in the third year. In this group the risk of having = 3 hospital stays in the second year was 27% and 12% in the third year.
There is a clear need for interventions targeted on prevention of frequent hospital and outpatient clinic utilization among those who are high users of hospital care in the first year after the initiation of continuing care. Perhaps an increased availability of medically skilled staff in the day to day care of these people in the municipalities could prevent frequent hospital and outpatient clinic utilization, especially hospital readmissions.
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AIM: This paper reports a study investigating quality of life in relation to loneliness, caregiving, social network, gender, age and economic status among caregiving men and women in a population-based sample aged 75 years or older. BACKGROUND: Because of demographic changes, in the future more care for older people will be given by informal caregivers who are themselves older. Being old and caring for another older person may affect various aspects of life, such as physical and emotional health and decreased time for respite, which may affect social life and quality of life. METHOD: A postal questionnaire including the Short Form Health Survey was used. The sample consisted of 4278 people, aged 75 years and over, living in Sweden. Of these, 783 (18%) were caregivers. FINDINGS: Caregivers had a larger social network and reported feelings of loneliness less often than non-caregivers. Forty per cent of caregivers helped every day. There were gender differences in experiences of loneliness during the last year, with the frequency of intense feelings of loneliness being higher among women. Loneliness and a small or non-existent network were significantly associated with low quality of life among caregivers, as well as in the total sample. The results showed significant association between loneliness, weak social network and low mental quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that loneliness was the most important factor predicting low quality of life among caregivers, as well as older people in general, indicates that it is crucial in the care of older people. From a nursing perspective, the findings indicate the advantage of helping older people to keep up and develop their social networks. Nursing care should involve steps to maintain the social network before an older person becomes too weak, since decreased health status makes social contacts more difficult.
Pain is a common problem for older persons who need professional help for their daily living. In this study 94 older persons (75+) in persistent pain were compared with 52 care providers concerning the pain management methods they had used/administered during the previous week and how helpful they perceived these methods to be. Interviews were based on 16 items from the original version of the pain management inventory (PMI). Both groups perceived prescribed medication, rest and distraction as the most frequently utilized methods. Specific methods such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or bracing/splinting or bandaging the affected body part were seldom employed, although most users perceived these methods as helpful. Care providers perceived most methods for managing pain as more effective than older persons did. The results imply that care providers need skills in a variety of pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods to manage pain and a need to evaluate effectiveness of the methods in a systematic way.
This study aimed to investigate medical healthcare utilization 3-5 years following the decision about long-term care at home vs. in special accommodation in older people. A total of 1079 people who were granted long-term care the years 2001, 2002 or 2003 were studied regarding the number of hospital stays and the number of contacts with physicians in outpatient care in the 3-5 subsequent years. Those living at home and those in special accommodation were compared regarding medical healthcare utilization during the 3-5 subsequent years. Data were collected through the study Good Aging in Skåne (GAS) and through the registers, Patient Administrative Support in Skåne (PASiS) and PrivaStat. Utilization of medical healthcare decreased slightly in the years following the decision about long-term care. Despite younger age and less dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), those living at home utilized hospital and outpatient care to a greater extent than those in special accommodation; these differences remained over time. Thus, it seems as long-term care needs to become more effective in the prevention of medical healthcare utilization among those cared for at home. More, older people who are granted long-term care at home may otherwise imply increased utilization of medical healthcare.
The aim of this study was to illuminate nurses' experiences of the encounter with elderly patients who developed acute confusional state (ACS) in orthopaedic care. Forty-eight nurses with professional background as registered (n=26) or licensed practical nurses (n=22) who took part in the nursing care of acute confused patients were involved. Open-ended unstructured interviews were conducted with regard to the course of events, experiences and interpretation of what had happened during the ACS as well as the nurses' actions and encounter with the confused patient. The texts were analysed using manifest and latent content analysis, revealing that the nurses had difficulties in reaching the patients and their reality, and thus in understanding their experiences. Interpretation of the nurses' experiences showed that the nurses found it difficult to reach the patients' reality because the patients were in a divided and/or different world. They interpreted the patients as seeking solitude or company, keeping a distance or being suspicious of the nurses. The findings indicated that the interaction in the encounter between the acutely confused patients and the nurses indicated insufficient and/or broken reciprocity. The nurses used various strategies to meet the patients, being a companion and/or being a surrogate. They acted in the encounter based on their view of the patient and their ability to enter into and understand the patients' situation. The strategies were more or less successful, sometimes resulting in contact and calming the patients and in other cases increasing the patients' irritation and anger. The results were more successful when the strategies were derived from the nurses' interpretation of the patients' situation and the nurses paid attention to the patients and confirmed them.