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Association between size at birth, truncal fat and obesity in adult life and its contribution to blood pressure and coronary heart disease; study in a high birth weight population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature53352
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;58(5):812-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2004
Author
I. Gunnarsdottir
B E Birgisdottir
R. Benediktsson
V. Gudnason
I. Thorsdottir
Author Affiliation
Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-University Hospital, Iceland. ingigun@landspitali.is
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;58(5):812-8
Date
May-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdomen - anatomy & histology
Adipose Tissue
Adult
Aged
Birth Weight - physiology
Body Constitution - physiology
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cohort Studies
Coronary Disease - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Female
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology - etiology
Iceland - epidemiology
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Skinfold thickness
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between size at birth and obesity as well as truncal fat, and its contribution to cardiovascular risk in a high birth weight population. DESIGN: Cohort-study with retrospectively collected data on size at birth. SETTING: Reykjavik, Iceland. SUBJECTS: A total of 1874 men and 1833 women born in Reykjavik during 1914-1935. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Size at birth. Adult weight, height and skinfold thickness measurements, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD). RESULTS: Birth weight was positively related to adult body mass index (BMI) in both genders (B=0.35+/-0.14 kg/m(2), adj. R(2)=0.015, P=0.012 and B=0.34+/-0.17 kg/m(2), adj. R(2)=0.055, P=0.043 in men and women, respectively). However, high birth weight was not a risk factor for adult obesity (BMI>/=30 kg/m(2)). In the highest birth weight quartile, the odds ratio (95% CI) for being above the 90th percentile of truncal fat was 0.7 (0.6-1.0, P=0.021) for men and 0.4 (0.3-0.8, P=0.002) for women, compared with the lowest birth weight quartile. Truncal fat and BMI were positively related to blood pressure in both genders (P
PubMed ID
15116085 View in PubMed
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Association of birth weight and breast-feeding with coronary heart disease risk factors at the age of 6 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30569
Source
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2003 Oct;13(5):267-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
I. Thorsdottir
I. Gunnarsdottir
G I Palsson
Author Affiliation
Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-University Hospital, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. ingathor@landspitali.is
Source
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2003 Oct;13(5):267-72
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth weight
Body Height
Body mass index
Breast Feeding
Child
Cholesterol - blood
Coronary Disease - etiology
Diet
Female
Humans
Iceland
Lipids - blood
Lipoproteins, HDL Cholesterol - blood
Lipoproteins, LDL Cholesterol - blood
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sex Characteristics
Time Factors
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIM: It has been shown that early growth and nutrition affect health in childhood and later life. The aim of this study was to assess the association of birth weight and breast-feeding in infancy with body mass index (BMI) and serum lipids at the age of six years. The contributions of current macronutrient intake, maternal age and BMI were assessed. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a longitudinal observational study of 120 randomly chosen children whose birth weight and duration of breast-feeding had been recorded. At the age of six years, their weight and height, and serum cholesterol (total, LDL and HDL) and triglyceride levels were measured at healthcare centres in Iceland. Dietary intake at six years was estimated using 3-day weighed food records. The duration of breast-feeding negatively correlated with BMI in 6-year-old boys (B = -0.19 +/- 0.07, p = 0.011) but not in girls; after adjusting for maternal BMI, the relationship in boys was of borderline significance (p = 0.087). The 6-year-old boys who had been breast-fed for or = 10 months (15.7 +/- 1.2 kg/m2, p = 0.005). A longer duration of breast-feeding was related to higher HDL-cholesterol levels in 6-year-old girls (B = 0.03 +/- 0.01, p = 0.032), but not boys. Birth weight was not related to BMI or serum lipid levels at the age of 6 years. CONCLUSION: In this high birth weight population, a longer duration of breast-feeding may be effective in preventing childhood overweight, at least among boys. Breast-feeding also seems to be related to an improved lipid profile in girls.
PubMed ID
14717058 View in PubMed
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Associations between Proportion of Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids, Depressive Symptoms and Major Depressive Disorder. Cross-Sectional Analyses from the AGES Reykjavik Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290027
Source
J Nutr Health Aging. 2018; 22(3):354-360
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2018
Author
C M Imai
T I Halldorsson
T Aspelund
G Eiriksdottir
L J Launer
I Thorsdottir
T B Harris
V Gudnason
I A Brouwer
I Gunnarsdottir
Author Affiliation
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir, Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-The National University Hospital of Iceland and Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Eiriksgata 29, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland, ingigun@hi.is.
Source
J Nutr Health Aging. 2018; 22(3):354-360
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Deficits in n-3 fatty acids may be associated with depression. However, data are scarce from older adults who are at greater risk of poor dietary intake and of developing depression.
To investigate proportion of plasma phospholipid fatty acids with respect to depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in community dwelling older adults.
Cross-sectional analyses of 1571 participants in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study aged 67-93 years. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Major depressive disorder was assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).
Depressive symptoms were observed in 195 (12.4%) subjects and there were 27 (1.7%) cases of major depressive disorder. Participants with depressive symptoms were less educated, more likely to be smokers, less physically active and consumed cod liver oil less frequently. Difference in GDS-15 scores by tertiles of n-3 fatty acid proportion was not significant. Proportion of long chain n-3 fatty acids (Eicosapentaenoic- + Docosahexaenoic acid) were inversely related to major depressive disorder, (tertile 2 vs. tertile 1) OR: 0.31 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.86); tertile 3 vs. tertile 1, OR: 0.45 (95% CI: 0.17, 1.21).
In our cross sectional analyses low proportions of long chain n-3 fatty acids in plasma phospholipids appear to be associated with increased risk of major depressive disorder. However, the results from this study warrant further investigation in prospective setting with sufficiently long follow-up.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29484348 View in PubMed
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Beneficial effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids included in an energy-restricted diet on insulin resistance in overweight and obese European young adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157100
Source
Diabetologia. 2008 Jul;51(7):1261-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
A. Ramel
A. Martinéz
M. Kiely
G. Morais
N M Bandarra
I. Thorsdottir
Author Affiliation
Landspitali-University Hospital & Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Eiriksgata 29, 101, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Source
Diabetologia. 2008 Jul;51(7):1261-8
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiponectin - blood
Adult
Diet, Reducing
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Energy Metabolism
European Continental Ancestry Group
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage
Female
Fish Oils - administration & dosage
Homeostasis - physiology
Humans
Iceland
Insulin Resistance - physiology
Male
Obesity - diet therapy - metabolism
Overweight - diet therapy - metabolism
Seafood
Treatment Outcome
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
Epidemiological research indicates that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) improve insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seafood consumption on insulin resistance in overweight participants during energy restriction.
In this 8 week dietary intervention, 324 participants (20-40 years, BMI 27.5-32.5 kg/m(2), from Iceland, Spain and Ireland) were randomised by computer to one of four energy-restricted diets (-30E%) of identical macronutrient composition but different LC n-3 PUFA content: control (n = 80; no seafood; single-blinded); lean fish (n = 80; 150 g cod, three times/week); fatty fish (n = 84; 150 g salmon, three times/week); (4) fish oil (n = 80; daily docosahexaenoic/eicosapentaenoic acid capsules, no other seafood; single-blinded). Fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin, plasma triacylglycerol and fatty acids in erythrocyte membrane were measured at baseline and endpoint. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Linear models with fixed effects and covariates were used to investigate the effects of seafood consumption on fasting insulin and HOMA-IR at endpoint in comparison with the control group.
Of the participants, 278 (86%) completed the intervention. Fish oil intake was a significant predictor of fasting insulin and insulin resistance after 8 weeks, and this finding remained significant even after including weight loss, triacylglycerol reduction, increased LC n-3 PUFA in membranes or adiponectin changes as covariates in the statistical analysis. Weight loss was also a significant predictor of improvements.
LC n-3 PUFA consumption during energy reduction exerts positive effects on insulin resistance in young overweight individuals, independently from changes in body weight, triacylglycerol, erythrocyte membrane or adiponectin.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00315770.
PubMed ID
18491071 View in PubMed
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Birth weight, growth and feeding in infancy: relation to serum lipid concentration in 12-month-old infants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52092
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;57(11):1479-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2003
Author
I. Thorsdottir
I. Gunnarsdottir
G I Palsson
Author Affiliation
Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. ingathor@landspitali.is
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;57(11):1479-85
Date
Nov-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth Weight - physiology
Breast Feeding
Cholesterol - blood
Female
Growth - physiology
Humans
Iceland
Infant
Infant Food
Infant Nutrition
Infant, Newborn - blood - growth & development
Lipids - blood
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of birth size, growth and feeding in infancy on serum lipids in 12-month-old infants. DESIGN: A longitudinal observation study on infants' consumption and growth. Food and growth records were made every month. At 6, 9 and 12 months, food records were weighed to calculate intake. Serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) -cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were analysed at 12 months. SETTINGS: Birth and growth information was gathered from maternity wards and healthcare centres in Iceland and food consumption data at home. SUBJECTS: Randomly selected newborns (n=180) according to the mother's domicile and 77% (n=138) participated, of them 75% (n=103), came in for blood sampling. RESULTS: Among boys, a 1 kg higher birth weight resulted in a 0.79 mmol/l higher TC (P=0.005), but nonsignificant after adjustment for growth. Duration of breastfeeding was related to LDL-cholesterol (B=0.06 +/-0.02, P=0.020, adj. R(2)=0.039), adjusting for gender. Independent of size at birth and breastfeeding, increase in length from 6 to 12 months and in weight from birth to 12 months were negatively related to TC (B=-0.455+/-0.156, P=0.008 and B=-1.086+/-0.474, P=0.032, respecitvely) in boys. PUFA was the strongest nutrient variable predicting TC (B=0.332, adj. R(2)=0.24, P>0.001). Cod liver oil consumption increased both TC and LDL-cholesterol in girls (B=0.141+/-0.051, P=0.008 and B=0.112+/-0.047, P=0.021, respectively). CONCLUSION: Slower growth of high birth weight infants and breastfeeding contributes to higher TC concentration at the age of 12 months. Nutrient intake in infancy also affects lipid profile. The effect of birth weight, growth and nutrient intake in infancy on lipid profile is different for boys and girls.
PubMed ID
14576762 View in PubMed
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Dietary intake of 10- to 16-year-old children and adolescents in central and northern Europe and association with the incidence of type 1 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30707
Source
Ann Nutr Metab. 2003;47(6):267-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
I. Thorsdottir
A. Ramel
Author Affiliation
Unit for Nutrition Research, Department of Food Science, Landspitali-University Hospital, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. ingathor@landspitali.is
Source
Ann Nutr Metab. 2003;47(6):267-75
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Nutrition
Animals
Cattle
Child
Child Nutrition
Dairy Products - adverse effects
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology - etiology
Diet
Diet Surveys
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Fruit
Humans
Incidence
Male
Milk - adverse effects
Risk factors
Vegetables
Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The highest incidence of type 1 diabetes is among 10- to 15-year-old adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible relationship between the dietary intake of this group and the incidence of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Dietary intake data of 10- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 4,701) from 11 European countries and the incidence rates of type 1 diabetes were used to examine the relation between food and the disease. RESULTS: The incidence of type 1 diabetes correlated with the consumption of total fat (r = 0.674; p = 0.023), saturated fatty acids (r = 0.714; p = 0.047) and the intake of fruits and vegetables (r = 0.786; p = 0.036). Fruit intake or vegetable intake alone did not correlate with the incidence. Cow's milk and animal product consumption correlated with the incidence when Icelandic data were excluded (r = 0.829; p = 0.042 and r = 0.999; p = 0.001). A negative correlation of borderline significance was found between sugar intake and the incidence of type 1 diabetes (r = -0.721; p = 0.068). CONCLUSION: The results indicate for the first time that an adolescent's diet high in fat and fruits and vegetables is associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes. Fruit or vegetable intake separately was not associated with type 1 diabetes. It is important to characterize and minimize diabetogenic factors in fruits and vegetables as the general health benefits of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables are well known and such a diet is therefore recommended. This study supports previous research about the importance of cow's milk and animal products in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes.
PubMed ID
14520022 View in PubMed
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Different beta-casein fractions in Icelandic versus Scandinavian cow's milk may influence diabetogenicity of cow's milk in infancy and explain low incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Iceland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32547
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Oct;106(4):719-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2000
Author
I. Thorsdottir
B E Birgisdottir
I M Johannsdottir
D P Harris
J. Hill
L. Steingrimsdottir
A V Thorsson
Author Affiliation
Unit for Nutrition Research, National University Hospital, Department of Food Science, Reykjavik, Iceland. ingathor@rsp.is
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Oct;106(4):719-24
Date
Oct-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Animals
Breast Feeding
Case-Control Studies
Caseins - adverse effects - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Infant
Milk - adverse effects - chemistry
Retrospective Studies
Scandinavia - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To compare children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) with controls in Iceland regarding their consumption of cow's milk in infancy, and to investigate the beta-casein fractions in Scandinavian and Icelandic cow's milk. The A1 variant of beta-casein has been shown to be diabetogenic in animal studies, and suggestions have been made that the B variant of beta-casein acts similarly. Differences in the relative proportions of beta-casein fractions might explain the lower incidence of IDDM in Iceland than in Scandinavia. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study on IDDM patients and matching controls was performed in Iceland to compare their diets in infancy. Fifty-five children with IDDM born in Iceland over a 16-year period and randomly collected controls (n = 165) were recruited to the study. Mothers of the children answered questions on breastfeeding habits and on when cow's milk products were introduced. Samples of cow's milk from randomly selected milk batches from the largest consumption areas in Iceland and Scandinavia were collected. The milk samples were freeze-dried and their beta-casein fractions were analyzed using capillary electrophoresis. RESULTS: No significant difference was found between IDDM patients and controls in the frequency and duration of breastfeeding or the first introduction of cow's milk products. The analyses of milk samples showed that the percentage of the A1 and B variants of beta-casein in Icelandic milk was significantly lower than in the milk from the Scandinavian countries. CONCLUSIONS: Cow's milk consumption in infancy is not related to IDDM in Iceland. The lower fraction of A1 and B beta-caseins in Icelandic cow's milk may explain why there is a lower incidence of IDDM in Iceland than in Scandinavia.
PubMed ID
11015514 View in PubMed
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Different weight gain in women of normal weight before pregnancy: postpartum weight and birth weight.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58955
Source
Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Sep;92(3):377-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1998
Author
I. Thorsdottir
B E Birgisdottir
Author Affiliation
National University Hospital, Department of Food Science, University of Iceland, Reykjavik. ingathor@rsp.is
Source
Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Sep;92(3):377-83
Date
Sep-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Birth weight
Comparative Study
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Postpartum Period
Pregnancy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Weight Gain
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To identify the effect of different gestational weight gains among women of normal weight before pregnancy on babies' birth weights, and women's weights 18-24 months postpartum. METHODS: Two groups of women of normal weight before pregnancy (body mass index [BMI] 19.6-25.4 kg/m2) took part in the study (n = 200). They gained either moderate weight (9-15 kg) or high weight (18-24 kg) during pregnancy. From maternity records and telephone interviews, information on age, height, prepregnancy and postpartum weight, gestational weight gain, babies' birth weights, lactation, parity, and smoking habits was collected. RESULTS: High maternal weight gain during pregnancy resulted in mean birth weight 286 g higher than that of babies of mothers who gained moderate weight. The correlation coefficient between birth weight and gestational weight gain was 0.3 (P .05). CONCLUSION: High gestational weight gain among women of normal weight before pregnancy increases birth weight and women's weight postpartum, compared with moderate weight gain. Prepregnant weight is more indicative of postpartum weight, and women reach normal weight again irrespective of gestational weight gain.
PubMed ID
9721774 View in PubMed
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Effect of 12-week resistance exercise program on body composition, muscle strength, physical function, and glucose metabolism in healthy, insulin-resistant, and diabetic elderly Icelanders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125278
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Nov;67(11):1259-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
O G Geirsdottir
A. Arnarson
K. Briem
A. Ramel
P V Jonsson
I. Thorsdottir
Author Affiliation
Unit for Nutrition Research, Eiriksgata 29, Landspitali National University Hospital, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. olofgg@landspitali.is
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Nov;67(11):1259-65
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body Composition
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - diagnosis - therapy
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Glucose - metabolism
Humans
Iceland
Insulin Resistance - physiology
Intervention Studies
Linear Models
Male
Muscle Strength - physiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Prediabetic State - diagnosis - therapy
Program Evaluation
Reference Values
Resistance Training - organization & administration
Risk assessment
Statistics, nonparametric
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Insulin is a stimulator of skeletal muscle protein anabolism and insulin resistance might therefore negatively affect muscle protein metabolism. We investigated muscle mass and physical function before and after a resistance exercise program in participants with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in comparison to healthy controls.
This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled intervention designed to investigate resistance training among older adults. Glucose metabolism status was not a selection criteria for the trial, and group designation was done retrospectively. Participants (N = 237, 73.7 ± 5.7 y, 58.2% women) participated in a 12-week resistance exercise program (3 times/week; three sets, six to eight repetitions at 75%-80% of the one-repetition maximum), designed to increase strength and muscle mass of major muscle groups. Body composition, muscular strength, timed up and go test, 6-minute walk for distance, and blood chemical variables were measured at baseline and endpoint.
Participants completing the study (n = 213) experienced significant changes in muscle strength or muscle function, which did not differ significantly between healthy (n = 198), prediabetic (n = 20), and T2DM participants (n = 17). Changes in serum glucose during the intervention differed by group: only glucose improved significantly in the prediabetic group, glucose and triacylglycerol improved significantly in the healthy group, whereas no serum parameter improved significantly in the T2DM group.
A 12-week resistance exercise program improves muscle strength and muscle function to a similar extent in healthy, prediabetic, and T2DM elderly people. However, according to our data, T2DM participants do not experience favorable changes in fasting glucose or HbA(1C).
PubMed ID
22496538 View in PubMed
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The effect of cognitive function on mobility improvement among community-living older adults: A 12-week resistance exercise intervention study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature309466
Source
Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn. 2020 05; 27(3):385-396
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-2020
Author
Milan Chang
Alfons Ramel
P V Jonsson
I Thorsdottir
Olof Gudny Geirsdottir
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Health Promotion, Sports and Leisure Studies, School of Education, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Source
Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn. 2020 05; 27(3):385-396
Date
05-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cognition - physiology
Exercise - physiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Iceland
Independent living
Male
Mental Status and Dementia Tests - statistics & numerical data
Outcome Assessment, Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Resistance Training
Walk Test - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between baseline cognitive function and improvement in mobility after 12 weeks of resistance training (3 times/week; 3 sets, 6-8 repetitions at 75-80% of the 1-repetition maximum) among community-dwelling older adults in Iceland (N=205, 73.5±5.7 years, 57.0% female). Body composition, physical activity status, cardiovascular risk factors, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were measured. The linear regression model was used to examine the association between baseline MMSE and mobility improvement. Mean distance of 6MWT was 462.8±71.6 meter at baseline and mean change after the exercise intervention was 33.7±34.9 meter. The mean MMSE score at baseline was 27.6±1.9. After adjusting for baseline covariates, we found that baseline MMSE score was significantly associated with improvement in mobility among older adults after the exercise intervention. Cognitive function strongly influences the effect of exercise intervention on mobility among older adults.
PubMed ID
31156030 View in PubMed
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39 records – page 1 of 4.