Comparison of myosin isoenzymes present in skeletal and cardiac muscles of the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.). Sequential expression of different myosin heavy chains during development of the fast white skeletal muscle.
The expression of myosin isoforms and their subunit composition in the white skeletal body musculature of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) of different ages (from 77-day embryos until about 5 years old) was studied at the protein level by means of electrophoretic techniques. Myosin from the white muscle displayed three types of light chain during all the developmental stages examined: two myosin light chains type 1 (LC1F) differing in both apparent molecular mass and pI, one myosin light chain type 2 (LC2F) and one myosin light chain type 3 (LC3F). The fastest-migrating form of LC1F seemed to be predominant during the embryonic and eleutheroembryonic periods. The slowest-migrating form of LC1F was predominant in the 5-year-old fish. Between 1 year and 4 years, both types of LC1F were present in similar amounts. Cardiac as well as red muscle myosin from 3-year-old fish had two types of light chain. The myosin light chains from atria and ventriculi were indistinguishable by two-dimensional electrophoresis, but were different from the myosin light chains from red muscle. Neither the light chains from cardiac nor red muscle were coexpressed with the myosin light chains of white muscle at any of the developmental stages examined. Two myosin heavy chain bands were resolved by SDS/glycerol/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the extract from embryos. One of the bands was present in minor amounts. The other, and most abundant, band comigrated with the only band found in the extracts of white muscle myosin from older fish. One-dimensional Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease peptide mapping of these bands revealed some differences during development of the white muscle tentatively interpreted as follows. The myosin heavy chain band present in minor amounts in the embryos may represent an early embryonic form that is replaced by a late embryonic or foetal form in the eleutheroembryos. The foetal myosin heavy chain appears to be present until the resorption of the yolk sack and beginning of the free-swimming stage. A new form of myosin heavy chain, termed neonatal and probably expressed around hatching, is present until about 1 year of age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Scarce information about comparative diagnostic and therapeutic patterns in paediatric outpatients of different countries is found in the literature.
To describe the similarities and differences observed in diagnosis and therapeutic patterns of paediatric patients of seven locations in different countries.
Cross-sectional, prospective, international comparative, descriptive study.
A randomly selected sample of 12,264 paediatric outpatients seen in consultation rooms of urban and rural areas and attended by paediatricians or general practitioners of the participating locations. Data on patient demographic information, diagnosis and pharmacological treatment were collected using pre-designed forms. Diagnoses were coded using the ICD-9 and drugs according to the ATC classification.
Among the ten most common diagnoses, upper respiratory tract infections are in the first position in all locations; asthma prevalence is highest in Tenerife (8.4%). Tonsillitis, otitis, bronchitis and dermatological affections are the most common diagnoses in all locations. Pneumonia is only reported in Sofia (3.8%) and Smolensk (2.3%). The average number of drugs prescribed per child varied from 1.3 in Barcelona to 2.9 in Smolensk. There are no great differences in the profile of pharmacological groups prescribed, but a considerable range of variations in antibiotic therapy is observed: prescription of cephalosporins is low in Smolensk (0.7%) and higher in the other locations, from 16.5% (Bratislava) to 28% (Tenerife). Macrolides prescriptions range from 12.6% (Toulouse) to 24.7% (Smolensk), except in Sofia where they drop to 5.6%. Trimethoprim and its combinations are used in Smolensk (23.3%), Sofia (11.8%) and Bratislava (8.7%). Check-up consultations are not recorded in Smolensk and Bratislava, whereas in Toulouse these visits account for 16.2% of all consultations and in the other locations the percentage varies from 6.1% (Tenerife) to 1.9% (Sofia). Homeopathic treatments are registered only in Toulouse.
Except in asthma prevalence, there are no great differences in diagnostic maps among locations. Significant variations in the number of drugs prescribed per child and antibiotic therapies are observed. Areas for improvement have been identified.
Indoor air pollution is considered to be a serious public health issue in Mexico; therefore, more studies regarding this topic are necessary. In this context, we assessed exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds in: (i) women who use firewood combustion (indoor) for cooking and heating using traditional open fire; (ii) women who use firewood combustion (outdoor) for cooking and heating using traditional open fire; and (iii) women who use LP gas as the principal energy source. We studied 96 healthy women in San Luis Potosi, México. Urine samples were collected, and analyses of the following urinary exposure biomarkers were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography: 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), trans, trans-muconic acid, and hippuric acid (HA). The highest levels of 1-OHP, trans, trans-muconic acid, and HA were found in communities where women were exposed to indoor biomass combustion smoke (or products; geometric mean ± s.d., 3.98 ± 5.10 µmol/mol creatinine; 4.81 ± 9.60 µg/l 1-OHP; 0.87 ± 1.78 mg/g creatinine for trans, trans-muconic acid; and 1.14 ± 0.91 g/g creatinine for HA). Our findings indicate higher exposure levels to all urinary exposure biomarkers studied in women who use indoor firewood combustion for cooking and heating (using traditional open fire).
High mean levels of 1-hydroxypyrene, t,t-muconic acid, and hippuric acid were found in women who use firewood combustion (indoor) for cooking and heating using traditional open fire and taking into account that millions of women and children in Mexico are living in scenarios similar to those studied in this report, the assessment of health effects in women and children exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds is urgently needed. Moreover, it is immediately necessary an intervention program to reduce exposure.
Indoor air pollution can be an important risk factor for human health, considering that people spend more than 60% of their time indoors. Fifty percent of the world population and approximately 90% of the rural population in developing countries are using biomass as energy source. Latin America represents 12% of the global consumption of biomass; in Mexico, 27 million people use wood as an energy source. Therefore, in this study we evaluated a 3-stage risk reduction program. The stages were: 1) removal of indoor soot adhered to roofs and internal walls; 2) paving the dirt floors; and 3) introduction of a new wood stove with a metal chimney that expels smoke outdoors. The complete intervention program was applied. In 20 healthy subject residents from an indigenous community in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, we measured blood carboxyhemoglobin (% COHb), DNA damage (comet assay) in nucleated blood cells, and urinary 1-OHP levels before and after the program. Before intervention individuals had a geometric mean COHb level of 4.93% and 53% of the population presented levels above 2.5% considered a safe level. However, in all the studied individuals the levels of COHb were reduced to below 2.5% (mean level 1.0%) one month after the intervention. Moreover, when compared, DNA damage in people exposed before the intervention was higher (5.8+/-1.3 of Tail Moment) than when the program was introduced (2.8+/-0.9 of Tail Moment) (P>0.05) and a same trend was observed with urinary 1-OHP levels; 6.71+/-3.58 micromol/mol creatinine was the concentration before intervention; whereas, 4.80+/-3.29 micromol/mol creatinine was the one after the program. The results suggest that the intervention program offers an acceptable risk reduction to those families that use biomass for food cooking.
Macroscopic sessile tumor architecture was associated with adverse outcomes after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Before inclusion in daily clinical decision-making, the prognostic value of tumor architecture needs to be validated in an independent, external dataset. We tested whether macroscopic tumor architecture improves outcome prediction in an international cohort of patients.
We retrospectively studied 754 patients treated with RNU for UTUC without neoadjuvant chemotherapy at 9 centers located in Asia, Canada, and Europe. Tumor architecture was macroscopically categorized as either papillary or sessile. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to address recurrence-free (RFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) estimates.
Macroscopic sessile architecture was present in 20% of the patients. Its prevalence increased with advancing pathologic stage and it was significantly associated with established features of biologically aggressive UTUC, such as tumor grade, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion, and concomitant CIS (all P values
Five grams of seafood products were inoculated with one to 500 viable or 10(9) heat-killed cells of Listeria monocytogenes. The presence of the pathogen was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers specific for fragments of the listeriolysin O (hly) gene (two sets) and for the invasion-associated protein (iap) gene (one set). For DNA preparation, boiling, either alone or in combination with lysozyme and proteinase K treatment, was not always sufficient to lyse L. monocytogenes, while treatment with Triton X-100 produced consistently good DNA suitable for amplification. To avoid false-negative and false-positive results, 48 h incubations were necessary and a subculturing step after an initial 24 h incubation greatly improved the results. The primers that amplified regions of the listeriolysin O gene gave clearer and stronger products than primers for the invasion-associated protein gene. Using this method we were able to detect one to five L. monocytogenes cells in 5 g of product in a total of 55 h.