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An epidemiological and serological study of toxocara infection in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature38274
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1989;21(1):87-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
1989
Author
I. Ljungström
F. van Knapen
Author Affiliation
Department of Parasitology, National Bacteriological Laboratory, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1989;21(1):87-93
Date
1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Animals
Antibodies, Helminth - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Female
Humans
Larva Migrans, Visceral - epidemiology - immunology
Male
Middle Aged
Sweden
Toxocara - immunology
Abstract
The serological prevalence of toxocara infection was determined in 323 sera from statistically selected healthy individuals from different geographical areas of Sweden. The serological response in 175 sera from patients suspected of having contracted toxocariasis was compared with their clinical manifestation and age. The sera were analysed by ELISA using excretory/secretory antigens. The serological prevalence in young adults was estimated to 7%, indicating that subclinical toxocariasis occurs in healthy Swedes. The prevalence figure is not contrasting with reports from other countries. Antibodies were predominantly demonstrated in sera from men living in a rural community compared to sera from the other areas investigated (p less than 0.01). 91% of the sera from patients were obtained from patients greater than 5 years old. The clinical manifestations were ocular disorder (46%), eosinophilia (32%), lung, liver, neurological disorders (14%). The disorders were equally distributed between the age groups. A seropositive reaction was noted in 25% of the patients and the various clinical manifestations and age groups were equally represented among the seropositives. However, the percentage of seropositive patients with ocular disorders increased with growing age, whereas the opposite was observed in patients with eosinophilia. The results indicate that clinically apparent toxocariasis exists in Sweden.
PubMed ID
2727630 View in PubMed
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Immune response to Giardia lamblia in a water-borne outbreak of giardiasis in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36719
Source
J Med Microbiol. 1992 May;36(5):347-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1992
Author
I. Ljungström
B. Castor
Author Affiliation
Department of Parasitology, National Bacteriological Laboratory, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
J Med Microbiol. 1992 May;36(5):347-52
Date
May-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Animals
Antibodies, Protozoan - biosynthesis - immunology
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Giardia lamblia - immunology
Giardiasis - epidemiology - immunology
Humans
Immunoglobulin A - immunology
Immunoglobulin G - immunology
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Sweden - epidemiology
Water Microbiology
Abstract
In one of the largest outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis reported from Europe, more than 3000 persons were exposed to contaminated water and over 1400 cases of giardiasis were diagnosed by microscopy. The outbreak resulted from an overflow of sewage water into the drinking water system of a Swedish ski resort. The period of contamination was about 1 week. Sweden is a non-endemic area for Giardia lamblia infection and, for most individuals affected, this was their first contact with the parasite. Few other enteropathogens were isolated from the patients involved. Therefore, an immune response to Giardia was unlikely to be biased by other concomitant infections. Serum samples from 352 exposed persons were collected and analysed for specific IgG and IgA antibodies to G. lamblia by indirect immunofluorescence and the results were related to the microscopic examination of faeces and the occurrence of diarrhoea. As controls, sera from 428 healthy persons were analysed at the same time by identical methods. IgG or IgA antibodies, or both, were found in 68% of patients whose diagnosis was made by microscopy, and in 22% of exposed by microscopically Giardia-negative persons, but in only 10% of healthy controls. The findings show that patients reported as negative for parasites might be infected. The time between infection and blood sampling influenced the result of the antibody test. The results suggest that stool examination should be the primary means of diagnosis of G. lamblia infection and that serological analysis performed at least 3 weeks after infection could contribute to diagnosis in a non-endemic region, when giardiasis is suspected but the parasite has not been detected.
PubMed ID
1588586 View in PubMed
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Modelling toxoplasma incidence from longitudinal seroprevalence in Stockholm, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64801
Source
Parasitology. 1993 Jul;107 ( Pt 1):33-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1993
Author
D J Nokes
M. Forsgren
E. Gille
I. Ljungström
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Imperial College, London, UK.
Source
Parasitology. 1993 Jul;107 ( Pt 1):33-40
Date
Jul-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antibodies, Protozoan - blood
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Humans
Likelihood Functions
Longitudinal Studies
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Pregnancy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Toxoplasmosis - epidemiology - immunology
Toxoplasmosis, Congenital - epidemiology
Abstract
Age-stratified data on toxoplasma seroprevalence in pregnant women in Stockholm, Sweden for the years 1969, 1979 and 1987 provide the basis for an analysis of temporal patterns of Toxoplasma gondii infection, and estimation of the risk of maternal toxoplasmosis, in this population. A catalytic infection model, in which the rate or force of infection is assumed to be a function of time (and not, as is more usual, age), was employed to describe the observed changes in levels of toxoplasma seropositivity. A range of simple incidence functions (up to 3 parameters) were fitted using a method of maximum likelihood. The data were significantly better described by a linear or an exponential decay in the rate of infection through time compared with a constant level. More complex incidence functions gave no better data description. Thus, whilst there is strong evidence for declining incidence in Stockholm over the past 4-5 decades, the data do not allow discrimination between different possibilities for the nature of this decline. Based on these modelling results, best estimates of the force of infection in 1987 acting on susceptible women are within the range 0 to 0.0045/susceptible/year (95% confidence limits), yielding a possible risk of maternal toxoplasmosis of between 0 and 2.7 cases/1000 pregnancies. These values are shown to be significantly lower than estimates based upon an assumption of temporal stability in toxoplasma incidence, which may be of practical significance to public health policy.
PubMed ID
8355995 View in PubMed
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Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in different parts of Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64605
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 1995 Apr;11(2):149-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1995
Author
I. Ljungström
E. Gille
J. Nokes
E. Linder
M. Forsgren
Author Affiliation
Laboratory of Parasitology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 1995 Apr;11(2):149-56
Date
Apr-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Animals
Antibodies, Protozoan - blood
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Forecasting
Humans
Incidence
Longitudinal Studies
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic - epidemiology - immunology
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Rural Health - statistics & numerical data
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Toxoplasma - immunology
Toxoplasmosis - epidemiology - immunology
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Surveys of pregnant women in four areas of Sweden in 1987-88, reveal a significant trend for decrease in Toxoplasma seroprevalence from Gotland island (26%, n = 467) in the south through Orebro county (18%, n = 1413) and Stockholm area (18%, n = 939), to Northern Sweden (12%, n = 837). No within area differences were observed between samples from rural and urban localities. Quantitative antibody data indicate marginally higher levels in the north than in the south, and a significant declining trend by age only in Orebro county. Incidence models are used to describe age-seroprevalence profiles for each area, using different assumptions about age- and time-specific infection rates, and to estimate the risk of maternal infection at the time of the survey. It is shown that the patterns of seroprevalence with age in Orebro county and Northern Sweden, but not Gotland island or Stockholm, strongly implicate time-dependent changes in Toxoplasma incidence, consistent with a declining incidence in the past which has possibly been reversed in recent years. The estimates of Toxoplasma incidence and risk of maternal toxoplasmosis are strongly dependent upon the underlying assumption of temporal change in incidence, with wide ranges in the predicted values. These studies demonstrate the difficulties in interpretation of horizontal cross-sectional data and the need for longitudinal studies of age-prevalence and seroconversion in the determination of the true risk of maternal toxoplasmosis.
PubMed ID
7672068 View in PubMed
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