In Norsjö in Northern Sweden a cardiovascular intervention programme, for adults is presently tested. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of factors related to cardiovascular disease in all 15-year-old adolescents living in Norsjö in 1987 and 1988. The total cholesterol concentration in serum, as an average for the test period, was 4.2 mmol/l and 4.7 mmol/l for boys and girls, respectively. Fourteen per cent of the boys and 32% of the girls had a total cholesterol concentration exceeding 5 mmol/l. Twenty-seven per cent of the adolescents had high values for two or more variables related to risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The evaluation of the dietary registrations showed unsatisfactory values for fibre, P/S ratio and total fat. The dietary habits were better in the 15-year-olds in 1988 than in 1987 as judged by significantly higher average daily intake of fibre as well as a higher content of fibre per megajoule in the food.
Trauma is the leading cause of loss of life expectancy worldwide. In the most seriously injured patients, coagulopathy is often present on admission. Therefore, transfusion strategies to increase the ratio of plasma (FFP) and platelets (PLT) to red blood cells (RBC), simulating whole blood, have been introduced. Several studies report that higher ratios improve survival in massively bleeding patients. Here, the aim was to investigate the potential effect of increased FFP and PLT to RBC on mortality in trauma patients.
In a retrospective before and after study, all trauma patients primarily admitted to a level-one Trauma Centre, receiving blood transfusion, in 2001-3 (n = 97) and 2005-7 (n = 156), were included. In 2001-3, FFP and PLT were administered in accordance with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) guidelines whereas in 2005-7, Hemostatic Control Resuscitation (HCR) entailing pre-emptive use of FFP and PLT in transfusion packages during uncontrolled haemorrhage and thereafter guided by thrombelastograph (TEG) analysis was employed. The effect of transfusion therapy and coagulopathy on mortality was investigated.
Patients included in the early and late period had comparable demography, injury severity score (ISS), admission hematology and coagulopathy (27% vs. 34% had APTT above normal). There was a significant change in blood transfusion practice with shorter time interval from admission to first transfusion (median time 3 min vs.28 min in massive bleeders, p
Cites: Crit Care Med. 2006 Jan;34(1):15-2116374151
Breast cancer is a common cause of death among women. The aim of this study was to determine whether women carry out regular breast self-examination (BSE), and to describe their knowledge of, and attitudes towards, breast cancer. Questionnaires were mailed to 200 randomly selected women who had not undergone breast cancer surgery. The response rate was 81%. The respondents were divided in three groups: those who practiced BSE regularly, those who practiced BSE occasionally, and those who did not practice BSE. The results show that only 10% of the sample practice BSE. Neither age, educational background, nor occupation, nor having knowledge of breast disease and medical outcome was associated with BSE practice. Nor did having a close relative or friend with breast cancer affect the practice of BSE.
Since 1985 a 10 year prevention programme aiming to reduce cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been running in the county of Västerbotten in Northern Sweden. The project started in Norsjö. The present investigation is a study on dietary intake, medical CVD risk factors and dental caries in five cross-sectional groups of 15-year-olds during 5 years (1987-1991) of the "Norsjö project". Most of the measured medical and dietary variables followed a similar trend, i.e. a positive trend during the first 3 years (1987-1989) and in the last 2 years (1990-1991) the averages returned towards baseline values. Dental caries prevalence followed a similar trend. Parental educational level did not have a major influence on diet or medical CVD risk factors, but higher caries scores were noted in adolescents with parents with "low" education compared with adolescents where the parents had higher educational levels. The results from the study also point to the fact that dental caries prevalence together with body mass index may indicate adolescents with CVD risk factors at unfavourable levels. Dietary counselling by dental personnel to adolescents with high caries and moderate obesity can be of advantage in reducing caries risk, as well as risk for development of CVD at higher ages.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum triglycerides (S-TG), cholesterol, blood pressure and waist/height ratio are risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD).
A population-based sample within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS) was used in this study (n=101?790 subjects). Cases with PD were identified prospectively in a community-based study of idiopathic Parkinsonism in the period 2004-2009 in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. The case database obtained was crosslinked to the NSHDS. Eighty-four of 147 patients with PD had visited the primary health care 2-8 years before diagnosis for participation in the NSHDS. For each case, four referents from the NSHDS population were selected, matched for sex, age, year of health survey, subcohort and geographic area.
Cases had lower mean S-TG levels (P=0.007). After stratification for sex, the lower S-TG remained significant for men (P=0.006) but not for women (P=0.450), and these were confirmed by the conditional logistic regression for all cases, none adjusted (hazard ratio (HR): 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42, 0.99) and after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.96). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was negatively associated with PD risk after adjustments for age, BMI and physical activity (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99). Smoking and former smoking were associated with a reduced risk for PD.
We found lower S-TG and SBP 2-8 years before a diagnosis of PD. Smoking was confirmed to be negatively associated with PD, whereas recreational activity indicates a risk for women.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe oral development and morphology in 18-month-old children with Down syndrome (DS) treated with palatal plates in combination with structured communication and speech training. The aim is further to describe the design of the palatal plates, compliance in their use and to give a brief report of their effect on oral motor function and speech. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Forty-two children with DS were followed from
The carcinogenicity of cigar and pipe smoking is established but the effect of detailed smoking characteristics is less well defined. We examined the effects on cancer incidence of exclusive cigar and pipe smoking, and in combination with cigarettes, among 102395 men from Denmark, Germany, Spain, Sweden and UK in the EPIC cohort. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer during a median 9 year follow-up from ages 35-70 years were estimated using proportional hazards models. Compared to never smokers, HR of cancers of lung, upper aero-digestive tract and bladder combined was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.8) for exclusive cigar smokers (16 cases), 3.0 (2.1, 4.5) for exclusive pipe smokers (33 cases) and 5.3 (4.4, 6.4) for exclusive cigarette smokers (1069 cases). For each smoking type, effects were stronger in current than in ex-smokers, and in inhalers than in non-inhalers. Ever smokers of both cigarettes and cigars (HR 5.7 (4.4, 7.3), 120 cases) and cigarettes and pipes (5.1 (4.1, 6.4), 247 cases) had as high a raised risk as had exclusive cigarette smokers. In these smokers, the magnitude of the raised risk was smaller if they had switched to cigars or pipes only (i.e. quit cigarettes) and had not compensated with greater smoking intensity. Cigar and pipe smoking is not a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. The lower cancer risk of cigar and pipe smokers as compared to cigarette smokers is explained by lesser degree of inhalation and lower smoking intensity. (c) 2010 UICC.
The strongest correlations between coffee consumption and serum cholesterol levels have been found in countries where people drink coffee brewed by mixing coffee grounds directly in boiling water (boiled coffee). In the present study of a population-based sample of 1625 middle-aged subjects (the Northern Sweden MONICA Study), approximately 50% of the participants were drinking boiled coffee, and 50% were drinking filtered coffee. Consumers of boiled coffee had significantly higher serum cholesterol levels than consumers of filtered coffee. Subjects who drank boiled coffee reported a higher intake of fat. A linear multiple regression analysis with serum cholesterol as the dependent variable confirmed that boiled coffee was an important independent determinant of cholesterol levels. We conclude that subjects who drink boiled coffee have higher serum cholesterol levels than those who drink filtered coffee, and that the most likely explanation for this finding lies in the type of brewing method.