It is well established that there is an association between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele (APOE*E4) and Alzheimer's disease. It is less clear whether there is also an association with geriatric depression. We examined the relationship between APOE*E4 and 5-year incidence of depression in a Swedish population-based sample of older adults without dementia and excluding older adults who developed dementia within 4 years after the diagnosis of depression.
In 2000-2001, 839 women and men (age range, 70-92 years; mean age, 73.8 years) free from dementia and depression underwent neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological examinations and genotyping of the APOE*E4 allele. Follow-up evaluations were conducted in 2005 and 2009.The association between APOE*E4 allele and 5-year incidence of depression was examined, while avoiding possible confounding effects of clinical or preclinical dementia by excluding participants who had dementia at study entry, subsequently developed dementia during the 9-year follow-up period, or had a decline in Mini-Mental State Examination score of =5 points.
Among subjects without depression at study entry and without dementia or significant cognitive decline during the subsequent 9 years, APOE*E4 was prospectively associated with more severe depressive symptoms (b = 1.56, p = .007), incident minor depression (odds ratio = 1.99 [confidence interval = 1.11-3.55], p = .020), and any depression (odds ratio = 1.75 [confidence interval = 1.01-3.03], p = .048).
The presence of the APOE*E4 allele predicted future depression in this Swedish population study, even after excluding depressed individuals who later developed dementia, suggesting that the APOE*E4 allele could potentially identify people at high risk for clinically significant depression.
Comment In: Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Nov 15;78(10):670-126497282
Adiposity measured in mid- or late-life and estimated using anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), or metabolic markers such as blood leptin and adiponectin levels, is associated with late-onset dementia risk. However, during later life, this association may reverse and aging- and dementia-related processes may differentially affect adiposity measures.
We explored associations of concurrent BMI, WHR, and blood leptin and high molecular weight adiponectin levels with dementia occurrence.
924 Swedish community-dwelling elderly without dementia, aged 70 years and older, systematically-sampled by birth day and birth year population-based in the Gothenburg city region of Sweden. The Gothenburg Birth Cohort Studies are designed for evaluating risk and protective factors for dementia. All dementias diagnosed after age 70 for 10 years were identified. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to predict dementia occurrence between 2000-2005, 2005-2010, and 2000-2010 after excluding prevalent baseline (year 2000) dementias. Baseline levels of BMI, WHR, leptin, and adiponectin were used.
Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden. email@example.com
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid ß (Aß)-42, total-tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated-tau (P-tau) demonstrate good diagnostic accuracy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there are large variations in biomarker measurements between studies, and between and within laboratories. The Alzheimer's Association has initiated a global quality control program to estimate and monitor variability of measurements, quantify batch-to-batch assay variations, and identify sources of variability. In this article, we present the results from the first two rounds of the program.
The program is open for laboratories using commercially available kits for Aß, T-tau, or P-tau. CSF samples (aliquots of pooled CSF) are sent for analysis several times a year from the Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory at the Mölndal campus of the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Each round consists of three quality control samples.
Forty laboratories participated. Twenty-six used INNOTEST enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, 14 used Luminex xMAP with the INNO-BIA AlzBio3 kit (both measure Aß-(1-42), P-tau(181P), and T-tau), and 5 used Meso Scale Discovery with the Aß triplex (AßN-42, AßN-40, and AßN-38) or T-tau kits. The total coefficients of variation between the laboratories were 13% to 36%. Five laboratories analyzed the samples six times on different occasions. Within-laboratory precisions differed considerably between biomarkers within individual laboratories.
Measurements of CSF AD biomarkers show large between-laboratory variability, likely caused by factors related to analytical procedures and the analytical kits. Standardization of laboratory procedures and efforts by kit vendors to increase kit performance might lower variability, and will likely increase the usefulness of CSF AD biomarkers.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative motor neuron syndrome influenced by oxidative stress. The transcription factor Nrf2 and its repressor Keap1 constitute an important defence system in cellular protection against oxidative stress. Here we hypothesize that common genetic variations in the genes NFE2L2 and KEAP1, encoding Nrf2 and Keap1, may influence the risk and phenotype of ALS. Five hundred and twenty-two Swedish patients with sporadic ALS (SALS) and 564 Swedish control subjects were studied. Eight tag SNPs in NFE2L2 and three tag SNPs in KEAP1 were genotyped by allelic discrimination and three functional NFE2L2 promoter SNPs were genotyped by sequencing. One NFE2L2 haplotype (GGGAC) was associated with decreased risk of SALS (OR = 0.62 per allele, p = 0.003) and one haplotype in KEAP1 (CGG) was associated with later SALS onset (+3.4 years per allele, p = 0.015). When stratified by subgroup, one haplotype in NFE2L2, GAGCAGA including three functional promoter SNPs associated with high Nrf2 protein expression, was associated with 4.0 years later disease onset per allele in subgroup ALS (p = 0.008). In conclusion, these results suggest that variations in NFE2L2 and KEAP1, encoding two central proteins in cellular oxidative stress defence, may influence SALS pathogenesis.
New research guidelines for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include biomarker evidence of amyloid-ß (Aß) and tau pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate what proportion of AD patients diagnosed in clinical routine in Sweden that had an AD-indicative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profile.
By cross-referencing a laboratory database with the Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem), 2357 patients with data on CSF Aß and tau biomarkers and a clinical diagnosis of AD with dementia were acquired.
Altogether, 77.2% had pathologic Aß42 and total tau or phosphorylated tau in CSF. These results were stable across age groups. Female sex and low mini-mental state examination score increased the likelihood of pathologic biomarkers.
About a quarter of clinically diagnosed AD patients did not have an AD-indicative CSF biomarker profile. This discrepancy may partly reflect incorrect (false positive) clinical diagnosis or a lack in sensitivity of the biomarker assays.
Genetic polymorphisms of immune genes that associate with higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) have led to an increased research interest on the involvement of the immune system in AD pathogenesis. A link between amyloid pathology and immune gene expression was suggested in a genome-wide gene expression study of transgenic amyloid mouse models. In this study, the gene expression of lysozyme, a major player in the innate immune system, was found to be increased in a comparable pattern as the amyloid pathology developed in transgenic mouse models of AD. A similar pattern was seen at protein levels of lysozyme in human AD brain and CSF, but this lysozyme pattern was not seen in a tau transgenic mouse model. Lysozyme was demonstrated to be beneficial for different Drosophila melanogaster models of AD. In flies that expressed Aß1-42 or AßPP together with BACE1 in the eyes, the rough eye phenotype indicative of toxicity was completely rescued by coexpression of lysozyme. In Drosophila flies bearing the Aß1-42 variant with the Arctic gene mutation, lysozyme increased the fly survival and decreased locomotor dysfunction dose dependently. An interaction between lysozyme and Aß1-42 in the Drosophila eye was discovered. We propose that the increased levels of lysozyme, seen in mouse models of AD and in human AD cases, were triggered by Aß1-42 and caused a beneficial effect by binding of lysozyme to toxic species of Aß1-42 , which prevented these from exerting their toxic effects. These results emphasize the possibility of lysozyme as biomarker and therapeutic target for AD.
Lack of objective biomarkers for brain damage hampers acute diagnosis and clinical decision making about return to play after sports-related concussion.
To determine whether sports-related concussion is associated with elevated levels of blood biochemical markers of injury to the central nervous system and to assess whether plasma levels of these biomarkers predict return to play in professional ice hockey players with sports-related concussion.
Multicenter prospective cohort study involving all 12 teams of the top professional ice hockey league in Sweden, the Swedish Hockey League. Two hundred eighty-eight professional ice hockey players from 12 teams contesting during the 2012-2013 season consented to participate. All players underwent clinical preseason baseline testing regarding concussion assessment measures. Forty-seven players from 2 of the 12 ice hockey teams underwent blood sampling prior to the start of the season. Thirty-five players had a concussion from September 13, 2012, to January 31, 2013; of these players, 28 underwent repeated blood sampling at 1, 12, 36, and 144 hours and when the players returned to play.
Total tau, S-100 calcium-binding protein B, and neuron-specific enolase concentrations in plasma and serum were measured.
Concussed players had increased levels of the axonal injury biomarker total tau(median, 10.0 pg/mL; range, 2.0-102 pg/mL) compared with preseason values (median, 4.5pg/mL; range, 0.06-22.7 pg/mL) (P
To determine whether calcium supplementation is associated with the development of dementia in women after a 5-year follow-up.
This was a longitudinal population-based study. The sample was derived from the Prospective Population Study of Women and H70 Birth Cohort Study in Gothenburg, Sweden, and included 700 dementia-free women aged 70-92 years. At baseline in 2000-2001, and at follow-up in 2005-2006, the women underwent comprehensive neuropsychiatric and somatic examinations. A CT scan was performed in 447 participants at baseline. Information on the use and dosage of calcium supplements was collected. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria.
Women treated with calcium supplements (n = 98) were at a higher risk of developing dementia (odds ratio [OR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-4.37, p = 0.046) and the subtype stroke-related dementia (vascular dementia and mixed dementia) (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.54-12.61, p = 0.006) than women not given supplementation (n = 602). In stratified analyses, calcium supplementation was associated with the development of dementia in groups with a history of stroke (OR 6.77, 95% CI 1.36-33.75, p = 0.020) or presence of white matter lesions (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.28-6.96, p = 0.011), but not in groups without these conditions.
Calcium supplementation may increase the risk of developing dementia in elderly women with cerebrovascular disease. Because our sample was relatively small and the study was observational, these findings need to be confirmed.
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2003 Mar 27;348(13):1215-2212660385
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has a high mortality and morbidity rate. Early SAH diagnosis allows the early treatment of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm, which improves the prognosis. Diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses may be performed after a negative computed tomography scan, but the precise analytical methods to be used have been debated. Here, we summarize the scientific evidence for different CSF methods for SAH diagnosis and describe their implementation in different countries. The principle literature search was conducted using PubMed and Scopus with the search items "cerebrospinal fluid", "subarachnoid haemorrhage", and "diagnosis". CSF analyses for SAH include visual examination, red blood cell counts, spectrophotometry for oxyhaemoglobin or bilirubin determination, CSF cytology, and ferritin measurement. The methods vary in availability and performance. There is a consensus that spectrophotometry has the highest diagnostic performance, but both oxyhaemoglobin and bilirubin determinations are susceptible to important confounding factors. Visual inspection of CSF for xanthochromia is still frequently used for diagnosis of SAH, but it is advised against because spectrophotometry has a superior diagnostic accuracy. A positive finding of CSF bilirubin is a strong indicator of an intracranial bleeding, whereas a positive finding of CSF oxyhaemoglobin may indicate an intracranial bleeding or a traumatic tap. Where spectrophotometry is not available, the combination of CSF cytology for erythrophages or siderophages and ferritin is a promising alternative.
The significance of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and neuroinflammation in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unknown.
To investigate the role of soluble APP (sAPP) and amyloid beta (Aß) isoforms, proinflammatory cytokines, and biomarkers of neuronal damage in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in relation to brain biopsy Aß and hyperphosphorylated tau (HPt) findings.
The study population comprised 102 patients with possible NPH with cortical brain biopsies, ventricular and lumbar CSF samples, and DNA available. The final clinical diagnoses were: 53 iNPH (91% shunt-responders), 26 AD (10 mixed iNPH+AD), and 23 others. Biopsy samples were immunostained against Aß and HPt. CSF levels of AD-related biomarkers (Aß42, p-tau, total tau), non-AD-related Aß isoforms (Aß38, Aß40), sAPP isoforms (sAPPa, sAPPß), proinflammatory cytokines (several interleukins (IL), interferon-gamma, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and biomarkers of neuronal damage (neurofilament light and myelin basic protein) were measured. All patients were genotyped for APOE.