In Finland, the severity of road traffic injuries is determined using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Finnish Modification (ICD-10-FM) injury codes from Finnish Hospital Discharge data and the automatic conversion tool (ICD-AIS map) developed by the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the ICD-AIS map to identify seriously injured patients due to traffic accidents in Finnish injury data by comparing the severity rating generated by an expert and by the ICD-AIS map.
Our data came from the North Kymi Hospital (level 2 trauma center at the time of the study). The data included 574 patients who were injured in traffic accidents during 2 years. The severity rating (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale [MAIS] 3+) of each patient was recorded retrospectively by an expert based on information from patient records. In addition, the rating was generated from ICD-10 injury codes by the ICD-AIS map conversion tool. These 2 ratings were compared by road user categories and the strength of agreement was described using Cohen's kappa.
The proportion of seriously injured patients was 10.1% as defined by the expert and 6.6% as generated by the ICD-AIS map; exact agreement was 65.5%. The highest concordance was for pedestrians (exact agreement 100%) and the weakest for moped drivers and motorcyclists (46.7%). Furthermore, the overall strength of agreement of the severity ratings (slightly or seriously injured) between the expert and the ICD-AIS map was good (??=?0.70). Most (65%) of the conversion problems were misclassifications caused by the simplicity of the Finnish ICD-10 injury codes compared to the injury codes used in the ICD-AIS map. In Finland, the injuries are recorded mainly with 4-digit codes and, infrequently, with 5-digit codes, whereas the ICD-AIS map defines up to 6-digit codes.
For this sample of simplified ICD-10-FM codes, the ICD-AIS map underestimated the number of seriously injured patients. The mapping result could be improved if at least open and closed fractures of extremities and visceral contusions and ruptures had separate codes. In addition, there were a few injury codes that should be considered for inclusion in the map.
Self-reported data are usually used for the evaluation of the effects of hormone therapy in population studies. We examined the agreement between self-reported hormone therapy use and nationwide prescription data from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland to evaluate the accuracy of self-reports.
The 10-year questionnaire of the population-based Kuopio Osteoporosis Study was sent in 1999 to 12,562 women aged 57 to 67 years; 11,377 women who completed questionnaires were eligible for analysis. We asked women whether they had been taking estrogen hormone therapy as a gel, plaster, or tablet for the treatment of climacteric symptoms or osteoporosis and if the answer was yes, to specify the brand and duration of treatment for each year from 1994 to 1999.
Among the 11,377 women, 3,105 (27.3%) reported the use of an estrogen-based preparation in 1996 to 1999, and 97.6% were confirmed by Social Insurance Institution of Finland to have been prescribed hormone therapy during that time. In these women the median duration of use was 32 months (range, 1-41), according to Social Insurance Institution of Finland data. An additional 1,738 women had been prescribed hormone therapy for short periods, but those women did not report it. The duration of self-reported hormone therapy use was compared to the duration of prescriptions. A difference of 3 months or less per year was observed in 63.4% to 77.0% of women during the years 1996-1998.
A postal inquiry is a reliable method of recording long-term hormone therapy use.
Findings regarding alcohol consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to explore the association of alcohol intake with BMD in elderly women.
This cohort study included women from the population-based Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention - Fracture Prevention Study (OSTPRE-FPS). Alcohol intake and potential confounders were assessed at baseline and after 3 years of follow-up using a lifestyle questionnaire. In addition, an FFQ was distributed in the third year to measure dietary intake, including alcohol. Women underwent BMD measurements at the femoral neck and lumbar spine at baseline and after 3 years of follow-up.
Kuopio Province, Finland.
Three hundred elderly women (mean age 67·8 years) who provided both BMD measurements and FFQ data.
Alcohol consumption estimated from the FFQ and lifestyle questionnaire was significantly associated with BMD at both measurement sites after adjustment for potential confounders, including lifestyle and dietary factors (P 3 alcoholic drinks/week had significantly higher BMD than abstainers, 12·0 % at the femoral neck and 9·2 % at the lumbar spine. Results based on the lifestyle questionnaire showed higher BMD values for all alcohol-consuming women at the femoral neck and for women drinking 1-3 alcoholic beverages/week at the lumbar spine, compared with non-users.
The results from OSTPRE-FPS suggest that low to moderate alcohol intake may exert protective effects on bone health in elderly women.
In this study, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), skinfold thickness measurement (STM) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), as a reference method, were compared with each other in the assessment of body composition in elderly (62-72-year-old) Finnish women (n=93). BIA had better agreement with DXA in the assessment of fat free mass (FFM, R2=0.70, Sres=2.1) and fat mass (FM, R2=0.93, Sres=2.3) than the STM (FFM, R2=0.62, Sres=2.4; FM, R2=0.89,Sres=2.8). There was quite a large variation in the estimates when different BIA prediction equations were used. The equation developed in this study, FFM (kg)=-128.06 + 1.85 x BMI-0.63 x weight + 1.07 x height - 0.03 x resistance +10.0 x waist-hip ratio, yielded a small and unbiased error (0.5 +/- 1.6 kg), with a small residual standard deviation (R2=0.83, Sres=1.6). However, error associated with the estimate of FM was positively related to the degree of FM. BIA(Heitmann) equation yielded unbiased estimates of both FFM and FM (FFM, R2=0.77, Sres=1.8; FM, R2=0.95, Sres=1.9). Both the STM and BIA (manufacturer's equation) resulted in error which was statistically significant and positively correlated with FFM and FM. These results indicate that BIA prediction equations, chosen with care, can improve the performance of equations based upon anthropometric measurements alone in the assessment of body composition in elderly women.
Very few studies have evaluated both parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and their effects on bone mass in children.
We studied the associations of serum 25(OH)D and intact PTH (iPTH) with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) at different bone sites and the relation between serum 25(OH)D and iPTH in early pubertal and prepubertal Finnish girls.
The subjects were 10-12-y-old girls (n = 193) at Tanner stage 1 or 2, who reported a mean (+/- SD) dietary calcium intake of 733 +/- 288 mg/d. 25(OH)D, iPTH, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b), urinary calcium excretion, BMC, areal BMD, and volumetric BMD were assessed by using different methods.
Thirty-two percent of the girls were vitamin D deficient [serum 25(OH)D
The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between grip strength change and postmenopausal bone loss. The study population, 622 peri- and postmenopausal women, was a random sample of the OSTPRE-study cohort (n=13,100) in Kuopio, Finland. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) was measured with dual X-ray absorptiometry and grip strength with a pneumatic squeeze dynamometer at baseline in 1989-1991, at the 5-year follow-up in 1994-1997 and at the 10-year follow-up in 1999-2001. Women were divided into three groups according to the change in age-grouped grip strength quartile they belonged to in each measurement (n in 5-year/10-year follow-up): "decreased" (n=150/n=140), "maintained" (n=314/n=320) and "improved" (n=158/n=162). Women within the improved group had significantly lower bone loss at both FN and LS in comparison to the other two groups after 10 years of follow-up (P
Dietary quality in relation to bone health has been analysed in relatively few studies. The current study aimed to assess the association of the Baltic Sea diet (BSD) and the Mediterranean diet (MD) with bone mineral density (BMD) among elderly women.
Lumbar, femoral and total body BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and year 3. Dietary intake was measured by 3 d food record at baseline. BSD and MD scores were calculated from food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake. Information on lifestyle, diseases and medications was collected by questionnaires. Longitudinal associations of BSD and MD scores with BMD were analysed using linear mixed models.
Interventional prospective Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Fracture Prevention study including women aged 65-71 years and residing in Kuopio province, Finland.
Women (n 554) with mean age of 67·9 (sd 1·9) years and mean BMI of 28·8 (sd 4·7) kg/m2.
Higher BSD scores were associated with higher intakes of fruit and berries, vegetables, fish and low-fat dairy products, and lower intake of sausage. Higher MD scores were associated with higher consumption of fruit and berries and vegetables. BSD and MD scores were associated with higher PUFA:SFA and higher fibre intake. Femoral, lumbar or total body BMD was not significantly different among the quartiles of BSD or MD score.
The lack of associations suggest that Baltic Sea and Mediterranean dietary patterns may not adequately reflect dietary factors relevant to bone health.
Obesity protects against osteoporosis, but the magnitude of this association has been difficult to assess from cross-sectional or short term studies. We examined the time course of bone loss as a function of body mass index (BMI) in early and late postmenopausal women. Our study population (n = 300) was a random sample of the population-based Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) Study, Finland. We excluded women without complete BMD results, premenopausal women during the second bone densitometry and women who had used hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates or calcitonin. BMI along with femoral neck and spinal bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed three times by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during a mean follow-up of 10.5 years (SD 0.5). The mean baseline age was 53.6 years (SD 2.8), time since menopause 2.9 years (SD 4.3) and BMI 27.3 kg/m(2) (SD 4.4). The data was analyzed by linear mixed models. Thus, we were able to approximate the bone loss up to 20 postmenopausal years. To illustrate, a woman with a baseline BMI of 20 kg/m(2) became osteopenic 2 (spine) and 4 (femoral neck) years after menopause, while obesity (BMI of 30 kg/m(2)) delayed the incidence of osteopenia by 5 (spine) and 9 (femoral neck) years, respectively. The delay was due to high baseline BMD of the obese, while bone loss rate was similar for both lean and obese subjects. This lean versus obese difference may also be partly due to altered X-ray attenuation due to fat mass.
Long-term bone mineral density (BMD) or fracture incidence changes after withdrawal of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) are not well known.
To study long-term postmenopausal bone loss and incidence of wrist fracture in respect to duration and withdrawal of self-reported HT.
A 15-year follow-up of the population-based prospective OSTPRE cohort in Kuopio, Finland.
Women (mean baseline age 53.4 years, range 48.1-59.6) were divided into four groups based on duration of HT: (1) never users (non-HT); (2) those who had used HT only throughout the 1st 5-year period (HT5); (3) throughout the first 10-years (HT10); (4) those who used HT throughout the entire 15-year follow-up (HT15).
Femoral (n=857) and spinal (n=599) BMD measurements with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were carried out at 5-year intervals in 1989-2004. Wrist fracture incidence in 1989-2004 was studied in a population of 5119 women.
The adjusted spinal BMD (L2-L4) changes by HT use during the entire 15-year follow-up were -4.8% for non-HT (p0.05) and +3.2% for HT15 (p0.05) groups. Comparing to non-HT group the risk of wrist fracture was reduced by 33% (p=0.045) in HT10 group and by 63% (p