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Detection of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Norway up to the northern limit of Ixodes ricinus distribution using a novel real time PCR test targeting the groEL gene.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302831
Source
BMC Microbiol. 2019 Aug 28; 19(1):199
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-28-2019
Author
Andrew Jenkins
Cecilie Raasok
Benedikte N Pedersen
Kristine Jensen
Åshild Andreassen
Arnulf Soleng
Kristin Skarsfjord Edgar
Heidi Heggen Lindstedt
Vivian Kjelland
Snorre Stuen
Dag Hvidsten
Bjørn-Erik Kristiansen
Author Affiliation
Department of Natural Science and Environmental Health, University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø, Norway. andrew.jenkins@usn.no.
Source
BMC Microbiol. 2019 Aug 28; 19(1):199
Date
Aug-28-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis is an emerging tick-borne pathogen. It is widely distributed in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe, but knowledge of its distribution in Norway, where I. ricinus reaches its northern limit, is limited. In this study we have developed a real time PCR test for Ca. N. mikurensis and used it to investigate the distribution of Ca. N. mikurensis in Norway.
Real time PCR targeting the groEL gene was developed and shown to be highly sensitive. It was used to detect Ca. N. mikurensis in 1651 I. ricinus nymphs and adults collected from twelve locations in Norway, from the eastern Oslo Fjord in the south to near the Arctic Circle in the north. The overall prevalence was 6.5% and varied locally between 0 and 16%. Prevalence in adults and nymphs was similar, suggesting that ticks acquire Ca. N. mikurensis predominantly during their first blood meal. In addition, 123 larvae were investigated; Ca. N. mikurensis was not found in larvae, suggesting that transovarial transmission is rare or absent. Sequence analysis suggests that a single variant dominates in Norway.
Ca. N. mikurensis is widespread and common in ticks in Norway and reaches up to their northern limit near the Arctic Circle. Ticks appear to acquire Ca. N. mikurensis during their first blood meal. No evidence for transovarial transmission was found.
Notes
ErratumIn: BMC Microbiol. 2020 Jan 10;20(1):9 PMID 31924162
PubMed ID
31462211 View in PubMed
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Head lice in Norwegian households: actions taken, costs and knowledge.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126408
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32686
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Bjørn Arne Rukke
Tone Birkemoe
Arnulf Soleng
Heidi Heggen Lindstedt
Preben Ottesen
Author Affiliation
Department of Pest Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. bjorn.arne.rukke@fhi.no
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32686
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Animals
Attitude to Health
Child
Child, Preschool
Health Care Costs
Humans
Lice Infestations - economics - epidemiology - therapy - transmission
Multivariate Analysis
Norway
Pediculus - physiology
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Abstract
Head lice infestations cause distress in many families. A well-founded strategy to reduce head lice prevalence must shorten the infectious period of individual hosts. To develop such a strategy, information about the actions taken (inspection, treatment and informing others about own infestations), level of knowledge and costs is needed. The present study is the first to consider all these elements combined.
A questionnaire was answered by 6203 households from five geographically separated municipalities in Norway.
94% of the households treated members with pediculicides when head lice were discovered. Nearly half of the households checked biannually or not at all. Previous occurrence of head lice and multiple children in a household improved both checking frequency and method. More than 90% of the households informed close contacts about their own pediculosis. Direct costs of pediculosis were low (less than €6.25 yearly) for 70% of the households, but the ability to pay for pediculicides decreased with the number of head lice infestations experienced. One in three households kept children from school because of pediculosis. Other widespread misconceptions, such as that excessive cleaning is necessary to fight head lice, may also add unnecessary burden to households. School affiliation had a significant effect on checking frequency and method, knowledge and willingness to inform others about own pediculosis.
Increased checking frequencies appear to be the most important element to reduce head lice prevalence in Norway and should be a primary focus of future strategies. National campaigns directed through schools to individual households, might be an important tool to achieve this goal. In addition to improving actions taken, such campaigns should also provide accurate information to reduce costs and enhance the level of knowledge about head lice in households.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22393437 View in PubMed
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Head lice predictors and infestation dynamics among primary school children in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277208
Source
Fam Pract. 2016 Feb;33(1):23-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Tone Birkemoe
Heidi Heggen Lindstedt
Preben Ottesen
Arnulf Soleng
Øyvind Næss
Bjørn Arne Rukke
Source
Fam Pract. 2016 Feb;33(1):23-9
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Child
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data
Family Characteristics
Female
Humans
Incidence
Lice Infestations - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
Multilevel Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Pediculus
Peer Group
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Scalp Dermatoses - epidemiology
Schools
Siblings
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Health providers need to know which measures to take and children to prioritize in order to decrease costs associated with head lice infestations.
Our aim was to determine the most important predictors for head lice and identify the major drivers of an infestation outbreak in a low-prevalence area.
The study was based on three datasets of head lice prevalence (retrospective, point prevalence and prospective approach) from primary school children (ages 6-12) at 12 schools in Oslo, Norway. The tested predictors were siblings with lice, individual and household characteristics as well as class and school affiliation. Self-reported monthly incidences (prospective approach) of head lice were used to evaluate infestation dynamics.
Infested siblings strongly increased the odds of head lice infestation of school children (odds ratio 36, 26 and 7 in the three datasets) whereas having short hair halved the odds. Household characteristics were of minor importance, and class affiliation proved more important than school affiliation. Having head lice in one school term increased the odds of an infestation in the next, but this effect diminished over time. About 97% of all self-reported infestations were noted in two consecutive months or less.
With the exception of hair length, we have found that individual and household characteristics are of minor importance to predict head lice infestations in a low-prevalence country and that unnoticed transmissions in school classes and families are likely to be the major driver upon outbreaks.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26511728 View in PubMed
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Head lice prevalence among households in Norway: importance of spatial variables and individual and household characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101449
Source
Parasitology. 2011 Jul 18;:1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-18-2011
Author
Bjørn Arne Rukke
Tone Birkemoe
Arnulf Soleng
Heidi Heggen Lindstedt
Preben Ottesen
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Pest Control, Lovisenberggata 8, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-0456 Oslo, Norway.
Source
Parasitology. 2011 Jul 18;:1-9
Date
Jul-18-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
SUMMARYHead lice prevalence varies greatly between and within countries, and more knowledge is needed to approach causes of this variation. In the present study, we investigated head lice prevalence among elementary school students and their households in relation to individual and household characteristics as well as spatial variables. The investigation included households from 5 geographically separated municipalities. Present infestations among household members as well as previous infestations in the household were reported in a questionnaire. In elementary school students prevalence was low (1·63%), but more than one-third of the households (36·43%) had previously experienced pediculosis. Prevalence was higher in elementary school students than in other household members, and highest in third-grade children. Prevalence was also influenced by the school attended, which suggested that interactions between children in the same school are important for head lice transmission. Previous occurrence of head lice in homes also increased the risk of present infestation. Prevalence of previous infestations was higher in households with more children and in more densely populated municipalities, indicating that the density of hosts or groups of hosts influences transmission rates. These results demonstrate that information of hosts' spatial distribution as well as household and individual characteristics is needed to better understand head lice population dynamics.
PubMed ID
21767439 View in PubMed
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Socioeconomic status, family background and other key factors influence the management of head lice in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256796
Source
Parasitol Res. 2014 May;113(5):1847-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Bjørn Arne Rukke
Arnulf Soleng
Heidi Heggen Lindstedt
Preben Ottesen
Tone Birkemoe
Author Affiliation
Department of Pest Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway, bjorn.arne.rukke@fhi.no.
Source
Parasitol Res. 2014 May;113(5):1847-61
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antiparasitic Agents - therapeutic use
Child
Family Characteristics
Female
Humans
Lice Infestations - epidemiology - prevention & control
Logistic Models
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Pediculus
Questionnaires
Schools
Social Class
Students
Abstract
How head lice infestations are managed by households is an important but generally neglected issue in head lice research. In the present study, we investigate actions taken against head lice by Norwegian households in association with socioeconomic status, family background, school-related variables and other key factors. Repeat questionnaires distributed to caretakers of the same elementary school children during a 2-year period enabled us to study both previous head lice management and any changes in this management through time. Households from 12 schools spanning the main socioeconomic variation found in Norway participated in the study. All students with active head lice infestation were treated in the four investigated periods. Most caretakers used a thorough head lice checking technique and informed others of own infestation. Checking frequency was low as most children were inspected less than monthly. The best determinant of increased checking frequency and thoroughness was personal experience with head lice. The increased awareness, however, seemed to be somewhat short-lived, as there was a decrease in checking frequency and thoroughness within 1 year after infestation. Personal experience with head lice also increased general knowledge related to the parasite. Parents born in developing countries checked their children for head lice more frequently, although less thoroughly, informed fewer contacts when infested, used pediculicides preventively more often and knew less about head lice than parents born in developed countries. Households with highly educated mothers had a lower checking frequency, but their knowledge and willingness to inform others was high. Single parents were more concerned about economic costs and kept children home from school longer while infested than other parents. As head lice management varied among socioeconomic groups and with parental background, differentiated advice should be considered in the control of head lice. The biannual focus on head lice during the 2 years of investigation increased checking thoroughness, while checking frequency remained unchanged. Based on the results, we suggest new head lice management guidelines for health authorities.
PubMed ID
24609236 View in PubMed
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