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ADHD, comorbid disorders and psychosocial functioning: How representative is a child cohort study? Findings from a national patient registry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284629
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Jan 17;17(1):23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-17-2017
Author
Beate Oerbeck
Kristin Romvig Overgaard
Stian Thoresen Aspenes
Are Hugo Pripp
Marianne Mordre
Heidi Aase
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Pal Zeiner
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Jan 17;17(1):23
Date
Jan-17-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Female
Humans
International Classification of Diseases
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Mothers - psychology
Neurodevelopmental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Norway - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Registries
Abstract
Cohort studies often report findings on children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but may be biased by self-selection. The representativeness of cohort studies needs to be investigated to determine whether their findings can be generalised to the general child population. The aim of the present study was to examine the representativeness of child ADHD in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
The study population was children born between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2008 registered with hyperkinetic disorders (hereafter ADHD) in the Norwegian Patient Registry during the years 2008-2013, and two groups of children with ADHD were identified in: 1. MoBa and 2. The general child population. We used the multiaxial International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and compared the proportions of comorbid disorders (axes I-III), abnormal psychosocial situations (axis V) and child global functioning (axis VI) between these two groups. We also compared the relative differences in the multiaxial classifications for boys and girls and for children with/without axis I comorbidity, respectively in these two groups of children with ADHD.
A total of 11 119 children were registered with ADHD, with significantly fewer in MoBa (1.45%) than the general child population (2.11%), p
Notes
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PubMed ID
28095819 View in PubMed
Less detail

Autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy in Norwegian children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123313
Source
Pediatrics. 2012 Jul;130(1):e152-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
Pål Surén
Inger Johanne Bakken
Heidi Aase
Richard Chin
Nina Gunnes
Kari Kveim Lie
Per Magnus
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Synnve Schjølberg
Anne-Siri Øyen
Camilla Stoltenberg
Author Affiliation
Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom. pal.suren@fhi.no
Source
Pediatrics. 2012 Jul;130(1):e152-8
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology
Cerebral Palsy - epidemiology
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Comorbidity
Epilepsy - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Registries
Sex Distribution
Abstract
Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence of neurologic and neurodevelopmental disorders individually, but few have examined them collectively, and there is uncertainty as to what extent they overlap.
The study has determined the proportions of children aged 0 to 11 years with diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and cerebral palsy (CP) in Norway. The data were obtained from the Norwegian Patient Register, which is nationwide and contains diagnoses assigned by Norwegian specialist health services (hospitals and outpatient clinics). The Norwegian Patient Register started collecting individual-level data in 2008, and the follow-up period for the study is years 2008 through 2010.
For ASD, ADHD, and epilepsy, the proportions were highest in the oldest children. At age 11 years, the incidence was 0.7% for ASD, 2.9% for ADHD, and 0.9% for epilepsy. The cumulative incidence is likely to be higher because some cases diagnosed before 2008 were probably missed. For CP, the proportions were ~0.3% for age = 5 years. There was considerable overlap between diagnoses. For all disorders, boys had a significantly increased risk. In school-age children (aged 6-11 years) the male/female ratio was 4.3 for ASD, 2.9 for ADHD, 1.2 for epilepsy, and 1.3 for CP.
The findings demonstrate the significant burden of disease associated with neurologic and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and that this burden is disproportionately skewed toward boys.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22711729 View in PubMed
Less detail

Continuity in features of anxiety and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in young preschool children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257947
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 Sep;23(9):743-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Kristin Romvig Overgaard
Heidi Aase
Svenn Torgersen
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Beate Oerbeck
Anne Myhre
Pål Zeiner
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Pb. 4959 Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway, k.r.overgaard@medisin.uio.no.
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 Sep;23(9):743-52
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Affective Symptoms - epidemiology
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Attention
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - psychology
Child Behavior - psychology
Child, Preschool
Confidence Intervals
Disease Progression
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Mother-Child Relations
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Abstract
Anxiety disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) develop before school age, but little is known about early developmental pathways. Here we test two hypotheses: first, that early signs of anxiety and ADHD at 18 months predict symptoms of anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years; second, that emotional dysregulation at 18 months predicts the outcome of co-occurring anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years. The study was part of the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The 628 participants were clinically assessed at 3½ years. Questionnaire data collected at 18 months were categorized into early behavioural scales of anxiety, ADHD, and emotional dysregulation. We investigated continuity in features of anxiety and ADHD from 18 months to 3½ years of age through logistic regression analyses. Anxiety symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of anxiety (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, CI = 1.15-1.73) and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.33, CI = 1.15-1.54). ADHD symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of ADHD (OR = 1.51, CI = 1.30-1.76) and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.31, CI = 1.13-1.51). Co-occurring anxiety and ADHD symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of anxiety (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.13-1.84), ADHD (OR = 1.30, CI = 1.11-1.54), and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.13-1.58). We conclude that there were modest continuities in features of anxiety and ADHD through early preschool years, while emotional dysregulation at age 18 months was associated with symptoms of anxiety, ADHD, and co-occurring anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24687273 View in PubMed
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Co-Occurrence of ADHD and Anxiety in Preschool Children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280317
Source
J Atten Disord. 2016 07;20(7):573-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
07-2016
Author
Kristin Romvig Overgaard
Heidi Aase
Svenn Torgersen
Pål Zeiner
Source
J Atten Disord. 2016 07;20(7):573-80
Date
07-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anxiety Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - complications - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine co-occurrence of ADHD and anxiety in preschool children.
The data collection was part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. After a screening for ADHD symptoms at 36 months, participants were clinically assessed at age 36 to 44 months. Psychiatric symptoms of ADHD and anxiety were derived from the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) interview.
In preschoolers with ADHD symptoms, 33% were reported to have symptoms of anxiety. Children with symptoms of ADHD and anxiety had more severe ADHD symptomatology, and particularly more inattentive symptoms compared with children with ADHD symptoms and no anxiety.
Clinicians should be aware of the frequent overlap between symptoms of anxiety and ADHD in preschoolers as different intervention strategies may be required.
PubMed ID
23160487 View in PubMed
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Co-Occurrence of ODD and CD in Preschool Children With Symptoms of ADHD.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289854
Source
J Atten Disord. 2017 Jul; 21(9):741-752
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-2017
Author
Bothild Bendiksen
Elisabeth Svensson
Heidi Aase
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Svein Friis
Anne M Myhre
Pål Zeiner
Author Affiliation
1 Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
Source
J Atten Disord. 2017 Jul; 21(9):741-752
Date
Jul-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - psychology
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Conduct Disorder - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Abstract
Patterns of co-occurrence between ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD) were examined in a sample of non-referred preschool children. ADHD subtypes and sex differences were also explored.
Children aged 3.5 years ( n = 1,048) with high scores on ADHD characteristics were recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and clinically assessed, including a semi-structured psychiatric interview.
In children with ADHD, concurrent ODD was present more often than CD (31% vs. 10%), but having ADHD gave higher increase in the odds of CD than of ODD (ODD: odds ratio [OR] = 6.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [4.2, 10.8]; CD: OR = 17.6, 95% CI = [5.9, 52.9]). We found a greater proportion of children having the combined ADHD subtype as well as more severe inattentiveness among children with co-occurring CD compared with ODD. Sex differences were minor.
There are important differences in co-occurring patterns of ODD and CD in preschool children with ADHD.
PubMed ID
24994876 View in PubMed
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Differences across counties in the registered prevalence of autism, ADHD, epilepsy and cerebral palsy in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106933
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2013 Oct 1;133(18):1929-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2013
Author
Pål Surén
Inger Johanne Bakken
Kari Kveim Lie
Synnve Schjølberg
Heidi Aase
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Per Magnus
Anne-Siri Øyen
Britt Kveim Svendsen
Kari Modalsli Aaberg
Guro L Andersen
Camilla Stoltenberg
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2013 Oct 1;133(18):1929-34
Date
Oct-1-2013
Language
English
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology
Cerebral Palsy - epidemiology
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Epilepsy - epidemiology
Humans
Infant
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Registries
Abstract
In 2012, we published an overview of the prevalence of developmental disorders and neurological diseases in children in Norway, which was unknown at the time. In this article we will compare diagnostics and treatment across counties and institutions.
The prevalence across counties of autism spectrum disorders, ADHD, epilepsy and cerebral palsy in children aged 0-12 was estimated with the aid of data from the Norwegian Patient Register for the years 2008-11.
In the age group 6-12 years, nationwide prevalence amounted to 0.6% for autism spectrum disorders, 2.0% for ADHD, 0.9% for epilepsy and 0.3% for cerebral palsy. In total, 5.0% of all twelve-year-olds were registered with one or more of these diagnoses. The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders and ADHD varied between the counties, from 0.3% to 1.5% for autism spectrum disorders and from 1.1% to 3.5% for ADHD. For epilepsy and cerebral palsy there was little variation between the counties. Diagnostics and treatment of these four conditions are spread over 29 somatic hospitals and 102 units for child and youth psychiatry.
The variations across counties in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders and ADHD are most likely due to variations in diagnostic practices. We ask whether it is appropriate to spread the provision of treatment across such a high number of institutions.
Notes
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2013 Oct 1;133(18):190424084945
PubMed ID
24084968 View in PubMed
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Inhibition and working memory in young preschool children with symptoms of ADHD and/or oppositional-defiant disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257454
Source
Child Neuropsychol. 2014;20(5):607-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Annette Holth Skogan
Pål Zeiner
Jens Egeland
Nina Rohrer-Baumgartner
Anne-Grethe Urnes
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Heidi Aase
Author Affiliation
a Oslo University Hospital, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Research Unit , Oslo , Norway.
Source
Child Neuropsychol. 2014;20(5):607-24
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - psychology
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders - psychology
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Executive Function
Female
Humans
Inhibition (Psychology)
Male
Memory, Short-Term
Norway
Research Design
Abstract
Early symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) are associated with deficits in cognitive self-regulatory processes or executive functions (EF)s. However, the hypothesis that neurocognitive deficits underlying the two disorders are already evident during early preschool years still has limited empirical support. The present study investigated associations between symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD and two core EFs, inhibition and working memory, in a large nonclinical sample of 3-year old children.
Participants were 1045 children (554 boys, age 37-47 months), recruited from the population based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Relations between behavioral symptoms and measures of inhibition and working memory were studied both categorically and dimensionally.
Children with co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and ODD performed at a significantly lower level than typically developing children in 4 out of 5 EF measures. Symptoms of ADHD, both alone and in combination with ODD, were associated with reduced performance on tests of inhibition in the group comparisons. Dimensional analyses showed that performance within both EF domains contributed to variance primarily in ADHD symptom load. The associations between test results and behavioral symptoms remained significant after gender and verbal skills had been controlled.
Young preschoolers show the same pattern of relations between EF and behavioral symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD as previously described in older children diagnosed with ADHD and/or ODD. Effect sizes were generally small, indicating that measures of EF have limited clinical utility at this stage in development.
PubMed ID
24053105 View in PubMed
Less detail

Language Delay in 3-Year-Old Children With ADHD Symptoms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286224
Source
J Atten Disord. 2016 Oct;20(10):867-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Nina Rohrer-Baumgartner
Pål Zeiner
Patricia Eadie
Jens Egeland
Kristin Gustavson
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Heidi Aase
Source
J Atten Disord. 2016 Oct;20(10):867-78
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - psychology
Child, Preschool
Cognition - physiology
Cognition Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Language
Language Development Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Male
Mass Screening - methods
Neuropsychological Tests
Norway - epidemiology
Parents
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vocabulary
Abstract
Little is known about cognition in preschoolers with ADHD and language delay (LD). The objective was to investigate cognitive functions in preschoolers with ADHD symptoms and LD compared with children with ADHD symptoms only and to estimate the frequency of children with ADHD symptoms, co-occurring language delay, and delays on cognitive measures.
Participants were recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The teacher report of expressive language and the cognitive tests from 119 3-year-old children with parent reported ADHD symptoms and LD were compared with those of 258 children with ADHD symptoms only.
The ADHD + LD group performed significantly worse than the ADHD group on most language-related measures. There were no differences between the groups on most nonverbal measures. Single measures had a limited potential of differentiating between the groups.
ADHD symptoms and co-occurring LD in preschoolers were characterized by cognitive deficits associated with both disorders, not with global neurodevelopmental delay.
PubMed ID
23942041 View in PubMed
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Maternal Iodine Intake and Offspring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Large Prospective Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293042
Source
Nutrients. 2017 Nov 13; 9(11):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Date
Nov-13-2017
Author
Marianne Hope Abel
Eivind Ystrom
Ida Henriette Caspersen
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Heidi Aase
Liv Elin Torheim
Ragna Bugge Askeland
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Author Affiliation
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0456 Oslo, Norway. mariannehope.abel@fhi.no.
Source
Nutrients. 2017 Nov 13; 9(11):
Date
Nov-13-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adult
Age Factors
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Child
Child Behavior
Dietary Supplements
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Iodine - administration & dosage - deficiency
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Norway - epidemiology
Nutritional Status
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Recommended dietary allowances
Registries
Risk factors
Abstract
Current knowledge about the relationship between mild to moderately inadequate maternal iodine intake and/or supplemental iodine on child neurodevelopment is sparse. Using information from 77,164 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, this study explored associations between maternal iodine intake and child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, registered in the Norwegian Patient Registry and maternally-reported child ADHD symptoms at eight years of age. Pregnant women reported food and supplement intakes by questionnaire in gestational week 22. In total, 1725 children (2.2%) were diagnosed with ADHD. In non-users of supplemental iodine (53,360 mothers), we found no association between iodine intake from food and risk of child ADHD diagnosis (p = 0.89), while low iodine from food (
Notes
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PubMed ID
29137191 View in PubMed
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Measurement of Total and Free Urinary Phenol and Paraben Concentrations over the Course of Pregnancy: Assessing Reliability and Contamination of Specimens in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272776
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2015 Jul;123(7):705-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2015
Author
Virginia T Guidry
Matthew P Longnecker
Heidi Aase
Merete Eggesbø
Pål Zeiner
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Gun P Knudsen
Randi J Bertelsen
Xiaoyun Ye
Antonia M Calafat
Stephanie M Engel
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2015 Jul;123(7):705-11
Date
Jul-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Benzhydryl Compounds - urine
Biomarkers - urine
Chlorophenols - urine
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Female
Humans
Norway
Parabens - analysis
Phenols - urine
Pregnancy
Preservatives, Pharmaceutical - chemistry
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
Exposures to environmental phenols and parabens may be harmful, especially in utero. Prior studies have demonstrated high within-person variability of urinary concentrations across pregnancy.
We sought to measure phenol and paraben biomarker concentrations for the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study, assess within-person variability, and investigate any possible external phenol or paraben contamination of specimens.
We collected three spot urine samples at approximately 17, 23, and 29 weeks gestation in a hospital setting and added a preservative containing ethyl paraben. We measured urinary concentrations and within-person variability for phenols and parabens in a MoBa sample (n = 45), including a subgroup of 15 participants previously randomly selected for a bisphenol A (BPA) exposure study who had unusually high total BPA concentrations. Additionally, we compared reliability results for total, conjugated, and free concentrations of phenolic compounds.
We detected total and free BPA, butyl paraben, propyl paraben, and methyl paraben in 100% of samples, total benzophenone-3 in 95% of samples, and infrequently detected free benzophenone-3 and total and free 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for total, conjugated, and free concentrations ranged from relatively low for BPA to moderate for propyl paraben. ICCs were generally similar overall and by subgroup.
Using conjugated concentrations improved reliability estimates only for BPA. Measuring total and free concentrations, an approach that may be useful for future studies, allowed us to identify likely BPA and butyl paraben contamination of archived MoBa urine specimens.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25782115 View in PubMed
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