Gymnodimines are lipophilic toxins produced by the marine dinoflagellates Karenia selliformis and Alexandrium ostenfeldii. Currently four gymnodimine analogues are known and characterized. Here we describe a novel gymnodimine and a range of gymnodimine related compounds found in an A. ostenfeldii isolate from the northern Baltic Sea. Gymnodimine D (1) was extracted and purified from clonal cultures, and characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) experiments. The structure of 1 is related to known gymnodimines (2-5) with a six-membered cyclic imine ring and several other fragments typical of gymnodimines. However, the carbon chain in the gymnodimine macrocyclic ring differs from the known gymnodimines in having two tetrahydrofuran rings in the macrocyclic ring.
Multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOLs) are effective in treating presbyopia before cataracts develop. This study measured health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) after clear lens extraction (CLE) and MIOL implantation.
Patients were treated in Medilaser Coronaria, CorGroup, Oulu, Finland. HRQoL was measured by a generic 15 dimension (15D) instrument. VRQoL was measured with VF-14 questionnaire.
CLE and MIOL implantation was performed in 137 patients. The patient age was 57 ± 6.2 years (mean±standard deviation), and 58% were women. The near add was 2.1±0.3 diopters. The overall HRQoL 15D score increased from 0.938±0.058 to 0.955±0.057 at 6 months (p