Mapping Arctic renewable energy resources, particularly wind, is important to ensure the transition into renewable energy in this environmentally vulnerable region. The statistical characterisation of wind is critical for effectively assessing energy potential and planning wind park sites and is, therefore, an important input for wind power policymaking. In this article, different probability density functions are used to model wind speed for five wind parks in the Norwegian Arctic region. A comparison between wind speed data from numerical weather prediction models and measurements is made, and a probability analysis for the wind speed interval corresponding to the rated power, which is largely absent in the existing literature, is presented. The results of the present study suggest that no single probability function outperforms across all scenarios. However, some differences emerged from the models when applied to different wind parks. The Nakagami and Generalised extreme value distributions were chosen for the numerical weather predicted prediction and the observed wind speed modelling, respectively, due to their superiority and stability compared with other methods. This paper, therefore, provides a novel direction for understanding the numerical weather prediction wind model and shows that its speed statistical features are better captured than those of real wind.
Key Laboratory of Science and Technology for Marine Ecology and Environment, First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, 6 Xianxialing Road, Qingdao 266061, China; Key Laboratory of Natural Products of Qingdao, Qingdao 266061, China.
Shewanella sp. Arc9-LZ is a bacterium capable of synthesizing silver nanoparticles in darkness. It was isolated from the marine sediment from the Arctic Ocean (158°01'12"W; 84°28'38"N) collected during the 9th Chinese National Arctic Expedition in 2018. Here, we describe the complete genome of Shewanella sp. Arc9-LZ. The complete genome of Shewanella sp. Arc9-LZ is composed of a circular chromosome of 4,911,031 bp with G + C content of 41.61 mol%. The genome encodes 4040 protein-coding genes (CDSs), 104 tRNAs, and 35 rRNAs. The rRNAs contain 14 copies of 5S rRNA gene, 11 copies of 16S rRNA gene, and 10 copies of 23S rRNA gene. Based on the KEGG, COG, NR, Swiss-Prot, TCDB, and CAZy analysis, a total of 64 genes belonging to 9 kinds are related to the AgNPs synthesis. These genes are involeved in the synthesis of riboflavin, b-type cytochrome, c-type cytochrome, coenzyme Q, NADPH dehydrogenase, cytochrome c reductase, cytochrome c oxidase, nitroreductase, and nitrate reductase.
The dataset deals with the mechanical characterization of sedimentary rocks collected along the banks of Longyear river in proximity of Longyearbyen (Svalbard) at the junction of Bolterdalen and Adventdalen valleys. As the rocks represent possible local construction materials that can be employed in the new road infrastructures located in the Svalbard archipelago, three types of laboratory investigations were performed for mechanical characterization: Los Angeles tests, micro-Deval tests and repeated load triaxial tests. The grading curve of the material characterized with the repeated load triaxial tests corresponded to a typical one commonly adopted in Norway for road base layer (0-31.5?mm). The dataset offers a thorough overview of the mechanical properties relevant for road constructions and the dataset can be useful to both contractors and transportation agencies operating in the Svalbard archipelago.
This review discusses the current state of our understanding regarding the genetic basis of the most important reproductive disorders in women. For clarity, these disorders have been divided into eugonadal and hypogonadal types. Hypogonadal disorders have been further subdivided according to serum gonadotropin levels. Our review focuses on historical and recent data regarding the genetics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis dysfunction, as well as the development and etiology of eugonadal disorders including leiomyomata, endometriosis, spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, mullerian aplasia, and steroid hormone resistance syndromes. We discuss the known genes most commonly involved in hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (Turner syndrome and premature ovarian failure) and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (Kallmann syndrome and normosmic types). In addition, we summarize the current clinical testing approaches and their utility in practical application.
The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms in the Nordic countries than in Canada or the United Kingdom. Their employment chances also varied by educational level and country. The employment impact of having both chronic illness and low education was not just additive but synergistic. This amplification was strongest for British men and women, Norwegian men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported. Attention must be paid to the differential impact of macro-level policies on the labor market participation of chronically ill and disabled people with low education, a group facing multiple barriers to gaining employment.
Low employment rates of chronically ill and disabled people are of serious concern. Being out of work increases the risk of poverty and social exclusion, which may further damage the health of these groups, exacerbating health inequalities. Macro-level policies have a potentially tremendous impact on their employment chances, and these influences urgently need to be understood as the current economic crisis intensifies. In Part I of this two-part study, the authors examine employment trends for people who report a chronic illness or disability, by gender and educational level, in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom in the context of economic booms and busts and deindustrialization. People with the double burden of chronic illness and low education have become increasingly marginalized from the labor market. Deindustrialization may have played a part in this process. In addition, periods of high unemployment have sparked a downward trend in employment for already marginalized groups who did not feel the benefits when the economy improved. Norway and Sweden have been better able to protect the employment of these groups than the United Kingdom and Canada. These contextual differences suggest that other macro-level factors, such as active and passive labor market polices, may be important, as examined in part II.
Comorbidity is prevalent in older working ages and might affect employment exits. This study aimed to 1) assess the associations between comorbidity and different employment exit routes, and 2) examine such associations by gender.
We used data from employed adults aged 50-62 in the Stockholm Public Health Survey 2002 and 2006, linked to longitudinal administrative income records (N = 10,416). The morbidity measure combined Limiting Longstanding Illness and Common Mental Disorder-captured by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (=4)-into a categorical variable: 1) No Limiting Longstanding Illness, no Common Mental Disorder, 2) Limiting Longstanding Illness only, 3) Common Mental Disorder only, and 4) comorbid Limiting Longstanding Illness+Common Mental Disorder. Employment status was followed up until 2010, treating early retirement, disability pension and unemployment as employment exits. Competing risk regression analysed the associations between morbidity and employment exit routes, stratifying by gender.
Compared to No Limiting Longstanding Illness, no Common Mental Disorder, comorbid Limiting Longstanding Illness+Common Mental Disorder was associated with early retirement in men (subdistribution hazard ratio = 1.73, 95% confidence intervals: 1.08-2.76), but not in women. For men and women, strong associations for disability pension were observed with Limiting Longstanding Illness only (subdistribution hazard ratio = 11.43, 95% confidence intervals: 9.40-13.89) and Limiting Longstanding Illness+Common Mental Disorder (subdistribution hazard ratio = 14.25, 95% confidence intervals: 10.91-18.61), and to a lesser extent Common Mental Disorder only (subdistribution hazard ratio = 2.00, 95% confidence intervals: 1.31-3.05). Women were more likely to exit through disability pension than men (subdistribution hazard ratio = 1.96, 95% confidence intervals: 1.60-2.39). Common Mental Disorder only was the only morbidity category associated with unemployment (subdistribution hazard ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence intervals: 1.36-2.15).
Strong associations were observed between specific morbidity categories with different employment exit routes, which differed by gender. Initiatives to extend working lives should consider older workers' varied health needs to prevent inequalities in older age.
Keeping older workers in employment is critical for societies facing the challenge of an ageing population. This study examined the association between types of health conditions and differentials in the probability of employment by level of education among men and women between 60-69 years of age in Canada, Denmark, Sweden and England.
Data were drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We combined country data, applied logistic regression, adjusted for educational level, and stratified the analysis by sex to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of employment (>15 hours work per week) for persons with physical health conditions, mental health conditions (depression) and physical-mental health comorbidity.
The odds of employment among men and women with physical-mental health comorbidity were lower compared to those with no/other conditions (men: OR 0.32, 95% CI: 0.25-0.42, women: OR 0.38 95% CI: 0.30-0.48). Women with low education had lower odds of employment compared to their counterparts with high education (OR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.57-0.76). The odds of employment at older ages was lower in Canada, Denmark and England compared with Sweden (e.g. English men: OR 0.48 95% CI 0.40-0.58; English women OR 0.33 95% CI 0.27-0.41).
The odds of employment beyond age 60 is lower for groups with low education, particularly women, and those with physical-mental health co-morbidities. As such, policies to extend working lives should not be 'one size fits all' but instead consider subgroups, in particular, these groups that we have shown to be most vulnerable on the labour market.