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The association of body mass index, weight gain and central obesity with activity-related breathlessness: the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature310016
Source
Thorax. 2019 10; 74(10):958-964
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2019
Author
Magnus Pär Ekström
Anders Blomberg
Göran Bergström
John Brandberg
Kenneth Caidahl
Gunnar Engström
Jan Engvall
Maria Eriksson
Klas Gränsbo
Tomas Hansen
Tomas Jernberg
Lars Nilsson
Ulf Nilsson
Anna-Carin Olin
Lennart Persson
Annika Rosengren
Martin Sandelin
Magnus Sköld
Johan Sundström
Eva Swahn
Stefan Söderberg
Hanan A Tanash
Kjell Torén
Carl Johan Östgren
Eva Lindberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Lund University, Faculty of Medicine, Lund, Sweden pmekstrom@gmail.com.
Source
Thorax. 2019 10; 74(10):958-964
Date
10-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dyspnea - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Humans
Incidence
Lung - physiopathology
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity, Abdominal - complications - epidemiology - physiopathology
Prognosis
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Weight Gain - physiology
Abstract
Breathlessness is common in the population, especially in women and associated with adverse health outcomes. Obesity (body mass index (BMI) >30?kg/m2) is rapidly increasing globally and its impact on breathlessness is unclear.
This population-based study aimed primarily to evaluate the association of current BMI and self-reported change in BMI since age 20 with breathlessness (modified Research Council score =1) in the middle-aged population. Secondary aims were to evaluate factors that contribute to breathlessness in obesity, including the interaction with spirometric lung volume and sex.
We included 13?437 individuals; mean age 57.5 years; 52.5% women; mean BMI 26.8 (SD 4.3); mean BMI increase since age 20 was 5.0?kg/m2; and 1283 (9.6%) reported breathlessness. Obesity was strongly associated with increased breathlessness, OR 3.54 (95% CI, 3.03 to 4.13) independent of age, sex, smoking, airflow obstruction, exercise level and the presence of comorbidities. The association between BMI and breathlessness was modified by lung volume; the increase in breathlessness prevalence with higher BMI was steeper for individuals with lower forced vital capacity (FVC). The higher breathlessness prevalence in obese women than men (27.4% vs 12.5%; p
PubMed ID
31434752 View in PubMed
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Burn injury during long-term oxygen therapy in Denmark and Sweden: the potential role of smoking.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286298
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017;12:193-197
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Hanan A Tanash
Thomas Ringbaek
Fredrik Huss
Magnus Ekström
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017;12:193-197
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Burns - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Hypoxia - diagnosis - mortality - physiopathology - therapy
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Oxygen Inhalation Therapy - adverse effects - contraindications - mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - diagnosis - mortality - physiopathology - therapy
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) increases life expectancy in patients with COPD and severe hypoxemia. Smoking is the main cause of burn injury during LTOT. Policy regarding smoking while on LTOT varies between countries. In this study, we compare the incidence of burn injury that required contact with a health care specialist, between Sweden (a country with a strict policy regarding smoking while on LTOT) and Denmark (a country with less strict smoking policy).
This was a population-based, cohort study of patients initiating LTOT due to any cause in Sweden and Denmark. Data on diagnoses, external causes, and procedures were obtained from the Swedish and Danish National Patient Registers for inpatient and outpatient care. Patients were followed from January 1, 2000, until the first of the following: LTOT withdrawal, death, or study end (December 31, 2009). The primary end point was burn injury during LTOT.
A total of 23,741 patients received LTOT in Denmark and 7,754 patients in Sweden. Most patients started LTOT due to COPD, both in Sweden (74%) and in Denmark (62%). The rate of burn injury while on LTOT was higher in Denmark than in Sweden; 170 (95% confidence interval [CI], 126-225) vs 85 (95% CI, 44-148) per 100,000 person-years; rate ratio 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0-4.1). The risk remained higher after adjustment for gender, age, and diagnosis in multivariate Cox regression, hazard ratio 1.8 (95% CI, 1.0-3.5). Thirty-day mortality after burn injury was 8% in both countries.
Compared to Sweden, the rate of burn injury was twice as high in Denmark where smoking is not a contraindication for prescribing LTOT.
Notes
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Cites: J Burn Care Res. 2012 Nov-Dec;33(6):e268-7422878494
Cites: Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(7 Suppl):30-321775347
Cites: Thorax. 2015 Jun;70(6):589-9125918120
PubMed ID
28123292 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cause-specific mortality in individuals with severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency in comparison with the general population in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284964
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2016;11:1663-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Hanan A Tanash
Magnus Ekström
Philippe Wagner
Eeva Piitulainen
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2016;11:1663-9
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Cause of Death
Diverticulitis, Colonic - diagnosis - mortality
Female
Humans
Liver Diseases - diagnosis - mortality
Lung Diseases - diagnosis - mortality
Lung Neoplasms - diagnosis - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Ischemia - diagnosis - mortality
Prospective Studies
Pulmonary Embolism - diagnosis - mortality
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Young Adult
alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency - diagnosis - mortality
Abstract
Severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ) predisposes to morbidity and mortality due to early-onset emphysema and liver disease. The risk of death from other causes, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, has not been well investigated. We aimed to analyze cause-specific mortality in PiZZ individuals compared with the general Swedish population.
Data on 1,561 PiZZ individuals from the Swedish National AAT Deficiency Register, prospectively followed from 1991 to 2014, were analyzed. Causes of death according to the Swedish National Causes of Death Register for the study group were compared with those for the general Swedish population matched for age, sex, and calendar year, with the excess mortality expressed as standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
There were 524 deaths during the follow-up period. PiZZ individuals had excess all-cause mortality compared with the Swedish general population (SMR 3.6, 95% CI 3.3-3.9). SMR for ischemic heart disease (IHD) was 0.5 (95% CI 0.3-0.8) and was similar for never and ever-smokers, and in males and females. SMR for lung cancer was 0.9 (95% CI 0.4-1.7). PiZZ individuals had increased mortality compared with the general population for the following diseases: respiratory disease, SMR 48.4 (95% CI 43.0-54.5); primary liver carcinoma, SMR 90.0 (95% CI 59.3-130.9); complicated colon diverticulitis, SMR 20.8 (95% CI 6.7-48.6); and pulmonary embolism, SMR 6.9 (95% CI 3.3-12.7).
PiZZ individuals had a reduced mortality risk of IHD. Mortality due to respiratory, hepatic disease, diverticulitis, and pulmonary embolism was markedly increased compared with the age- and sex-matched Swedish population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27555756 View in PubMed
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The Clinical Profile of Subjects Included in the Swedish National Register on Individuals with Severe Alpha 1-Antitrypsin deficiency.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269562
Source
COPD. 2015 May;12 Suppl 1:36-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
Eeva Piitulainen
Hanan A Tanash
Source
COPD. 2015 May;12 Suppl 1:36-41
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Liver Cirrhosis - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - etiology
Pulmonary Emphysema - epidemiology - etiology
Registries
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
The Swedish national register of severe alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency was established in 1991. The main aims are to prospectively study the natural history of severe AAT deficiency, and to improve the knowledge of AAT deficiency. The inclusion criteria in the register are age = 18 years, and the PiZ phenotype diagnosed by isoelectric focusing. The register is kept updated by means of repeated questionnaires providing data to allow analysis of the mode of identification, lung and liver function, smoking-habits, respiratory symptoms and diagnoses as reported by physicians. Until February 2014, a total of 1553 PiZZ individuals had been included in the register. The 1102 subjects still alive constituted about 20% of the adult PiZZ individuals in Sweden. Forty-three percent of the subjects had been identified during investigation of respiratory symptoms, 7% by an investigation of liver disease, 26% in an investigation of other pathological conditions, and 24% in a population or family screening. Forty five percent of the subjects had never smoked, 47% were ex-smokers, and 8% current smokers. Twenty-eight percent of the never-smokers, 72% of the ex-smokers, and 61% of the current smokers fulfilled the criteria for COPD with a FEV1/FVC ratio of
PubMed ID
25938290 View in PubMed
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Health status and lung function in the Swedish alpha 1-antitrypsin deficient cohort, identified by neonatal screening, at the age of 37-40 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286292
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017;12:495-500
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Eeva Piitulainen
Behrouz Mostafavi
Hanan A Tanash
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017;12:495-500
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Breath Tests
Case-Control Studies
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Health status
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Lung - physiopathology
Male
Mutation
Neonatal Screening
Phenotype
Predictive value of tests
Prognosis
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - diagnosis - etiology - physiopathology
Quality of Life
Registries
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - prevention & control
Smoking Cessation
Spirometry
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Vital Capacity
alpha 1-Antitrypsin - genetics
alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency - complications - diagnosis - enzymology - genetics
Abstract
Severe alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (genotype PiZZ) is a well-known risk factor for COPD. A cohort of PiZZ and PiSZ individuals was identified by the Swedish national neonatal AAT screening program in 1972-1974 and followed up regularly since birth. Our aim was to study the lung function, respiratory symptoms and health status at the age of 38 years in comparison with a random sample of control subjects selected from the population registry.
The study group included 120 PiZZ, 46 PiSZ and 164 control subjects (PiMM), who answered a questionnaire on smoking habits and symptoms and the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) on quality of life. A total of 89 PiZZ, 33 PiSZ and 92 PiMM subjects underwent spirometry.
Four percent of the PiZZ, 2% of the PiSZ and 12% of the control subjects were current smokers (P=0.008), and 17% of the PiZZ, 9% of the PiSZ and 21% of the control subjects had stopped smoking. The PiZZ current smokers had a significantly higher (ie, poorer) median activity score according to the SGRQ than the PiZZ never-smokers (P=0.032). The PiMM current smokers had significantly higher activity score (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
28203073 View in PubMed
Less detail

Liver function in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficient individuals at 37 to 40 years of age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281665
Source
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Mar;96(12):e6180
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Behrouz Mostafavi
Sandra Diaz
Hanan A Tanash
Eeva Piitulainen
Source
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Mar;96(12):e6180
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Collagen Type III - blood
Contraceptive Agents, Female - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Liver - diagnostic imaging - physiology
Liver Function Tests
Male
Prescription Drugs - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Procollagen - blood
Severity of Illness Index
Sweden
alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency - physiopathology
Abstract
Severe alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (PiZZ) is a risk factor for liver disease, but the prevalence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in PiZZ adults is unknown. The risk of liver disease in adults with moderate AAT deficiency (PiSZ) is also unknown. A cohort of 127 PiZZ, 2 PiZnull, 54 PiSZ, and 1 PiSnull individuals were identified by the Swedish national neonatal AAT screening program between 1972 and 1974, when all 200,000 newborn infants in Sweden were screened for AAT deficiency. The cohort has been followed up since birth. Our aim was to study liver function and signs of liver disease in this cohort at 37 to 40 years of age in comparison with a matched, random sample of control subjects identified from the population registry.Eighty seven PiZZ, 32 PiSZ, and 92 control subjects (PiMM) answered a questionnaire on medication and alcohol consumption and provided blood samples. Liver stiffness was assessed by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography in 32 PiZZ, 15 PiSZ, and 51 PiMM subjects.The median of liver function tests and procollagen-III-peptide were within the normal range in all Pi subgroups. However, the PiZZ men had significantly higher plasma bilirubin than the PiMM men (P?=?0.018). Plasma [Latin Small Letter Gamma]-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was significantly higher in the PiZZ men (P?=?0.009) and the PiSZ men (P?=?0.021) compared with the PiMM men. The median of liver stiffness was significantly higher in the PiZZ men (P?=?0.037) and the PiSZ men (P?=?0.032) compared with the PiMM men. The PiZZ women taking medication influencing liver enzymes had significantly higher GGT than the PiMM women on the corresponding treatment (P?=?0.023).These AAT-deficient individuals identified by neonatal screening have normal plasma levels of liver function tests, and no clinical signs indicating liver disease at the age of 37 to 40 years. However, bilirubin, GGT, and liver stiffness are significantly higher in PiZZ men than PiMM men.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28328804 View in PubMed
Less detail

Lung function and CT lung densitometry in 37- to 39-year-old individuals with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299292
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2018; 13:3689-3698
Publication Type
Journal Article
Author
Behrouz Mostafavi
Sandra Diaz
Eeva Piitulainen
Berend C Stoel
Per Wollmer
Hanan A Tanash
Author Affiliation
Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology Malmö, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden, behrouz.mostafavi@med.lu.se.
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2018; 13:3689-3698
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Case-Control Studies
Densitometry
Disease Progression
Female
Humans
Lung - diagnostic imaging - physiopathology
Male
Predictive value of tests
Prognosis
Pulmonary Emphysema - diagnostic imaging - genetics - physiopathology
Registries
Residual Volume
Respiratory Function Tests
Severity of Illness Index
Smoking - adverse effects - physiopathology
Sweden
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Total lung capacity
alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency - diagnostic imaging - genetics - physiopathology
Abstract
Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that predisposes to emphysema. A cohort of severe (PiZZ) and moderate (PiSZ) AAT-deficient newborn infants was identified by the Swedish national neonatal AAT screening program in 1972-1974 and has been followed-up since birth. Our aim was to study whether the cohort has signs of emphysema in pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and computed tomography (CT) densitometry at 38 years of age in comparison with an age-matched control group, randomly selected from the population registry.
Forty-one PiZZ, 18 PiSZ, and 61 control subjects (PiMM) underwent complete PFTs, measurement of resistance and reactance in the respiratory system by impulse oscillometry (IOS)/forced oscillation technique (FOT), and CT densitometry. The results were related to self-reported smoking habits.
The total lung capacity (TLC) % of the predicted value was significantly higher in the PiZZ ever-smokers than in the PiZZ never-smokers (P
PubMed ID
30510411 View in PubMed
Less detail

The risk of burn injury during long-term oxygen therapy: a 17-year longitudinal national study in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276339
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015;10:2479-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Hanan A Tanash
Fredrik Huss
Magnus Ekström
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015;10:2479-84
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anoxia - diagnosis - physiopathology - therapy
Burns - diagnosis - epidemiology - therapy
Female
Humans
Incidence
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Oxygen Inhalation Therapy - adverse effects
Prospective Studies
Protective factors
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - diagnosis - physiopathology - therapy
Pulmonary Fibrosis - diagnosis - physiopathology - therapy
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Risk Reduction Behavior
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - prevention & control
Smoking Cessation
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) improves the survival time in hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Despite warnings about potential dangers, a considerable number of patients continue to smoke while on LTOT. The incidence of burn injuries related to LTOT is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of burn injury requiring health care contact during LTOT.
Prospective, population-based, consecutive cohort study of people starting LTOT from any cause between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 2009 in the Swedish National Register of Respiratory Failure (Swedevox).
In total, 12,497 patients (53% women) were included. The mean (standard deviation) age was 72±9 years. The main reasons for starting LTOT were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (75%) and pulmonary fibrosis (15%). Only 269 (2%) were active smokers when LTOT was initiated. The median follow-up time to event was 1.5 years (interquartile range, 0.55-3.1). In total, 17 patients had a diagnosed burn injury during 27,890 person-years of LTOT. The rate of burn injury was 61 (95% confidence interval, 36-98) per 100,000 person-years. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of burn injury between ever-smokers and never-smokers, or between men and women.
The rate of burn injuries in patients on LTOT seems to be low in Sweden. The strict requirements in Sweden for smoking cessation before LTOT initiation may contribute to this finding.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26622175 View in PubMed
Less detail

Risk of cancer after lung transplantation for COPD.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292346
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017; 12:2841-2847
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Date
2017
Author
Magnus Ekström
Gerdt C Riise
Hanan A Tanash
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Respiratory Medicine & Allergology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017; 12:2841-2847
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Keywords
Female
Humans
Incidence
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Lung Neoplasms - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality
Lung Transplantation - adverse effects - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - diagnosis - mortality - surgery
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The risk of cancer is increased and affects survival after lung transplantation (LTx), but has not been well characterized in COPD. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and prognosis of cancer following LTx for COPD.
A prospective, population-based study of patients undergoing LTx for end-stage COPD at the two transplantation centers in Sweden between 1990-2013, with follow-up for incident cancer and death, using national registers. The excess risk of cancer was calculated as standardized incidence ratios compared with the general population matched for age, sex, and calendar year. Risk factors for cancer were analyzed using Fine-Gray regression, and survival after cancer diagnosis with Kaplan-Meier.
In total, 331 patients (mean age 55.4 years; 64% women; 97% former smokers) were included. At a median follow-up of 2.8 years, 35% of patients had developed cancer and the risk was increased more than 10-fold ([95% CI] 8.1-11.8). The highest excess risks were for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (20.8-66.7), skin cancer (20.3-35.2), lung (11.7-31.2), liver (3.6-51.6), and colorectal cancer (6.1-19.5). Median survival was longer for skin cancer (8 years; 95% CI, 3-15) compared with non-skin cancer (4 years; 95% CI, 2.8-4.8; p
Notes
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PubMed ID
29042765 View in PubMed
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Survival benefit of lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260222
Source
Ann Thorac Surg. 2014 Dec;98(6):1930-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Hanan A Tanash
Gerdt C Riise
Magnus P Ekström
Lennart Hansson
Eeva Piitulainen
Source
Ann Thorac Surg. 2014 Dec;98(6):1930-5
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lung Transplantation
Male
Middle Aged
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - mortality - surgery
Retrospective Studies
Survival Rate - trends
Sweden - epidemiology
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Lung transplantation (LTx) is a therapeutic option for patients with life-threatening chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that is refractory to conventional therapies. The survival benefit of LTx for COPD is difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Swedish series of LTx performed to treat COPD and to identify differences in outcome between COPD related to severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and COPD with normal alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels.
We retrospectively reviewed the data of 342 patients (128 AATD and 214 non-AATD) receiving lung transplants for end stage COPD from 1990 through 2012.
The majority (71%) of patients received a single lung transplant. The median survival time after LTx for all COPD patients was 9 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8 to 10). Non-AATD recipients had a shorter survival time than AATD recipients, 6 years (95% CI: 5.0 to 8.8) versus 12 years (95% CI: 9.6 to 13.5, p = 0.000). Mortality was higher among non-AATD recipients after adjusting for age, pack-years of smoking, body mass index, oxygen therapy use, exercise capacity, donor age, cytomegalovirus mismatch, and transplant type (hazard ratio 1.70, 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.82). The 5-year and 10-year survival rates for the AATD recipients were 75% and 59%, respectively, compared with 60% and 31% for the non-AATD recipients. Early deaths were mainly due to cardio/cerebrovascular accidents and sepsis, and late deaths to bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and pulmonary infections.
Survival after LTx is significantly better for patients with severe AATD and end stage COPD than for the patients with COPD related to cigarette smoking.
PubMed ID
25443001 View in PubMed
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