The number of potential donors of cadaver kidneys in Finland was estimated on the basis of the death certificates in 1975. Only patients who had died via one of the two main causes of brain death--subarachnoid haemorrhage and head injury--were included. Exclusions were made on grounds of age at death, quality of hospital, concomitant disease and survival time in hospital. After these exclusions, 209 patients could be regarded as potential donors of cadaver kidneys, a figure which in relation to the total mean population is 45 million and year. The cadaveric kidney potential, 90 kidneys per million population and year, is considered to be more than twice the demand.
To examine changes in glucose metabolism (fasting and 2-h glucose) during follow-up in people with impaired fasting glucose in comparison with changes in people with isolated impaired glucose tolerance, people with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance combined and people with screening-detected Type 2 diabetes at baseline, among those who participated in a diabetes prevention programme conducted in Finland.
A total of 10 149 people at high risk of Type 2 diabetes took part in baseline examination. Of 5351 individuals with follow-up = 9 months, 1727 had impaired glucose metabolism at baseline and completed at least one lifestyle intervention visit. Most of them (94.6%) were overweight/ obese.
Fasting glucose decreased during follow-up among overweight/obese people in the combined impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance group (P = 0.044), as did 2-h glucose in people in the isolated impaired glucose tolerance group (P = 0.0014) after adjustment for age, sex, medication and weight at baseline, follow-up time and changes in weight, physical activity and diet. When comparing changes in glucose metabolism among people with different degrees of glucose metabolism impairment, fasting glucose concentration was found to have increased in those with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (0.12 mmol/l, 95% Cl 0.05 to 0.19) and it decreased to a greater extent in those with screening-detected Type 2 diabetes (-0.54 mmol/l, 95% Cl -0.69 to -0.39) compared with those with impaired fasting glucose (-0.21 mmol/l, 95% Cl -0.27 to -0.15). Furthermore, 2-h glucose concentration decreased in the isolated impaired glucose tolerance group (-0.82 mmol/l, 95% Cl -1.04 to -0.60), in the combined impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance group (-0.82 mmol/l, 95% Cl -1.07 to -0.58) and in the screening-detected Type 2 diabetes group (-1.52, 95% Cl -1.96 to -1.08) compared with those in the impaired fasting glucose group (0.26 mmol/l, 95% Cl 0.10 to 0.43). Results were statistically significant even after adjustment for covariates (P
Patient compliance is crucial for the effectiveness of preventive medication. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in serum cholesterol levels and the use of cholesterol lowering drugs one year after the end of the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S), a randomized secondary prevention study of coronary heart disease with simvastatin and placebo.
A questionnaire asking the current use of cholesterol lowering drugs, most recent serum cholesterol value and attitudes towards cholesterol lowering was sent to 785 surviving 4S participants in four 4S centres in Finland. The response rate was 94%. The current use of cholesterol lowering drugs and the reported mean serum cholesterol values were similar to the original simvastatin and placebo groups. In all, 74% (n = 546) reported that they had used cholesterol lowering drugs after the study, and 63% (n = 467) were currently using them, mostly simvastatin (96%) with an average dose of 14 (SD 5) mg.day-1. Cholesterol lowering was considered to be 'very important' by 53% and 'important' by 37% of the respondents. The most frequent reasons for discontinuation were 'drug costs' (38%) and 'normal cholesterol values' (30%). The reported mean serum cholesterol levels were 5.1 (SD 1.0) and 5.7 (SD 1.1) mmol-1 in the current cholesterol lowering drug users and non-users, respectively (P
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 1997 Nov;18(11):1695-69402441
A randomized, double-blind 12-week comparison of lovastatin and gemfibrozil in the treatment of patients with primary hypercholesterolemia with normal or moderately elevated triglycerides was performed in 334 patients from 19 centers in Finland. Patients with "high" total serum cholesterol (240 to 300 mg/dl) constituted Stratum 1 and patients with "very high" total serum cholesterol (greater than 300 mg/dl) constituted Stratum 2. In Stratum 1, patients were randomly assigned to either lovastatin 20 mg nightly or gemfibrozil 600 mg twice daily, and in Stratum 2 to either lovastatin 40 mg nightly or gemfibrozil 600 mg twice daily. In both strata, the lovastatin dose was doubled after 6 weeks if serum cholesterol remained greater than 200 mg/dl. Ninety-two and 93% of the patients doubled their dose in Strata 1 and 2, respectively, resulting in average doses of 38.5 mg/day (Stratum 1) and 77.4 mg/day (Stratum 1) and 77.4 mg/day (Stratum 2) by week 12. The dose of gemifibrozil was kept constant. Lovastatin reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 31 and 42% in Stratum 1 and 2, respectively. The corresponding reductions achieved by gemfibrozil were 13 and 18%. In both strata, as well as in patients with Type IIa and IIb hyperlipoproteinemia, lovastatin was approximately 2 to 4 times as effective as gemfibrozil in lowering LDL cholesterol. Although both drugs increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations, gemfibrozil was 1.5 to 3 times more effective. LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios decreased significantly more during lovastatin therapy. Both drugs reduced serum triglyceride levels, but gemfibrozil was much more effective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Pirkanmaa Hospital District, XXXX Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu Unit of General Practice, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu Finnish Diabetes Association, XXXX National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki South Ostrobothnia Hospital District, XXXX Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki Unit of Family Practice, Central Finland Hospital District, Jyväskylä Kuopio University Hospital, and University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Department of Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Northern Savo Hospital District, Kuopio Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, XXXX, †††Research Unit, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio North Ostrobothnia Hospital District and Health Center of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Aims: To investigate whether a positive family history of diabetes is associated with the effectiveness of lifestyle counselling on cardio-metabolic risk factors and glucose tolerance status in a 1-year follow-up in a cohort of Finnish men and women at high risk for Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Altogether, 10 149 individuals who had high risk of Type 2 diabetes participated in the implementation programme of the national diabetes prevention programme at baseline. One-year follow-up data were available for 2798 individuals without diabetes. Family history of diabetes was based on self-report. Lifestyle interventions were individual or groups sessions on lifestyle changes. The effectiveness of lifestyle intervention was measured as changes in cardiovascular risk factors, glucose tolerance status and incidence of Type 2 diabetes. Results: Family history was associated with the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in men, but not in women. During the 1-year follow-up, body weight, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and score for 10-year risk for fatal cardiovascular disease (SCORE) decreased and glucose tolerance status improved more in men without a family history of diabetes than in men with a family history of diabetes. Of the participating men and women, 10% and 5% developed Type 2 diabetes, respectively. Family history was not related to the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in either gender. Conclusions: Men without a family history of diabetes were more successful in responding to lifestyle counselling with regard to cardio-metabolic measurements and glucose tolerance than those with a family history of diabetes. Similar results were not seen in women. In keeping with findings from earlier studies, the prevention of Type 2 diabetes is not influenced by a family history of diabetes.
The number of hospitalized renal patients and the number of days they stayed in hospitals were studied in Finland 1969-1982. In 1969 3.3% and in 1982 1.7% of all bed-days available were occupied by renal patients. The number of hospitalized renal patients first decreased and after 1976 no notable changes were observed. A rising trend in the number of patients as well as in the corresponding bed-days was seen in diabetic nephropathy, lupus nephropathy, renal amyloidosis and polycystic kidney disease. A declining trend, in contrast, was observed in renal infections and nephritis. The proportion of patients over 70 years increased during the study period. An approximation of the outcome of renal diseases was made using the ratio of the number of deaths against the number of hospitalized renal patients. The outcome of patients under 50 years has improved. A slight improvement was observed in most renal diseases, partially due to the increased capacity of dialysis treatment and renal transplantations.
A study of mortality from renal disease in Finland in 1951-1982 showed overall rise up to 1962 and thereafter decrease. Extensive use of phenacetin may have contributed to the temporary increase of deaths, but precise evidence is lacking. Renal dialysis and transplantation have effected notable reduction of mortality rates. In the early 1980s half of those who died of renal disease at ages younger than 70 had not received dialysis or transplantation. If these measures had been unrestrictedly available, more patients in this group might have survived.
The national development programme for the prevention and care of diabetes was carried out in Finland during 2000-2010. One of the programme goals was to raise awareness of diabetes and its risk factors in the whole population through various activities, e.g. media campaigns and health fares. In addition, a targeted implementation project on the prevention of type 2 diabetes, FIN-D2D, was carried out in selected districts during 2003-2008. The aim of this analysis was to examine the changes in overall awareness of the programme and its association with self-reported lifestyle changes within the adult population during the FIN-D2D project period in the FIN-D2D area compared with the area not participating in the FIN-D2D (the control area).
Health behaviour and health among the Finnish Adult Population -postal survey.
The structured questionnaire mailed to a random population sample included questions on participants' sociodemographic background, medical history, health habits, and recent lifestyle changes. Awareness of the national diabetes programme was also enquired. Data (n = 10 831) from the 2004-2008 postal surveys were used for this investigation.
In the FIN-D2D area, 25% (347/1384) of men and 48% (797/1674) of women reported being aware of the programme. In the control area, the proportions were 20% (702/3551) and 36% (1514/4222), respectively. The overall awareness increased among both genders and in all areas during the project period, but the level of awareness was consistently higher in the FIN-D2D area. Female gender and higher age were associated with increasing awareness of the programme in both areas. Self-reported lifestyle changes were more common among women, but associated with the level of awareness of the programme more often among men than women.
The awareness of diabetes and its risk factors increased among men and women in both implementation and control areas during the FIN-D2D project period. The activities of the implementation project may at least partly explain the differences in lifestyle changes between areas, especially among men. The results suggest that health promotion campaigns increase the population awareness about the prevention of chronic diseases and as a result, especially men may be prompted to make beneficial lifestyle changes.
The objective of the present study was to determine the occurrence of late specific complications, i.e., nephropathy, retinopathy, and autonomic neuropathy, in type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects with a recent onset and with a disease duration of at least 5 years. The study design comprised of a population-based controlled cross-sectional survey of middle-aged type II diabetic subjects in the City of Tampere, Southwest Finland. The mean (SD) albumin excretion rate per 24 h was found to have increased in recently diagnosed diabetic subjects, i.e., 54 (111) mg (p 300 mg/24 h) was 7% in long-term and 4% in recently diagnosed diabetic subjects and zero in nondiabetic subjects. The differences between diabetic and nondiabetic subjects tested for microalbuminuria and clinical nephropathy were significant (p = 0.02-0.0001) exempting the difference between recently diagnosed female diabetic subjects and nondiabetic female subjects tested for clinical nephropathy. Seventy-five percent of biopsied diabetic subjects with an albumin excretion rate exceeding 100 mg/24 h were found to have diabetic glomerulosclerosis, while the rest had a normal finding. In long-term diabetic subjects the prevalence of nonspecific, background and proliferative retinopathies were present in 40%, 31%, and 8%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)