In Norway, the largest reported quantities of radioactive discharges and radioactive waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) come from the oil and gas sector, and smaller quantities of other NORM waste are also produced by industrial or mining processes. The Gulen final repository for radioactive waste from the oil and gas industry from the Norwegian continental shelf was opened in 2008 and has a capacity of 6000 tonnes. As of 1 January 2011, a new regulation was enforced whereby radioactive waste and radioactive pollution was integrated in the Pollution Control Act from 1981. This means that radioactive waste and radioactive pollution are now regulated under the same legal framework as all other pollutants and hazardous wastes. The regulation establishes two sets of criteria defining radioactive waste: a lower value for when waste is considered to be radioactive waste, and a higher value, in most cases, for when this waste must be disposed of in a final waste repository. For example, waste containing = 1 Bq/g of Ra-226 is defined as radioactive waste, while radioactive waste containing = 10 Bq/g of Ra-226 must be disposed of in a final repository. Radioactive waste between 1 and 10B q/g can be handled and disposed of by waste companies who have a licence for handling hazardous waste according to the Pollution Control Act. Alternatively, they will need a separate licence for handling radioactive waste from the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The goal of the new regulation is that all radioactive waste should be handled and stored in a safe manner, and discharges should be controlled through a licensing regime in order to avoid/not pose unnecessary risk to humans or the environment. This paper will elaborate on the new regulation of radioactive waste and the principles of NORM management in Norway in view of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's 2007 Recommendations.
In 1993, a 21m NOK (3m US$) national campaign against trade with illegal spirits (homebrewed or smuggled) was launched in Norway. This article reports results of its evaluation study. Surveys covering the age range 16-80 were carried out just before the campaign started and 1 year later. Half of those responding at baseline as well as a new sample were surveyed after 1 year. While at baseline 48% reported to have drunk and 16% to have bought illegal spirits during the last 12 months, the corresponding figures after 1 year were 42 and 14%. Significant associations between being exposed to the campaign and reduced use and buying of illegal spirits were found. Further, use and buying of illegal spirits at baseline, and stopping to use and buy illegal spirits from baseline to follow-up were analyzed in bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. In the multivariate prediction of stopping to use illegal spirits, only behavioral norms and significant others' opinions (both measured at baseline) obtained significance.