OBJECTIVE: A common polymorphism (-1C to T) in the translation initiation sequence of annexin A5 (ANV) gene has recently been associated with a decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between the ANV genepolymorphism and the risk of AMI and ischemic sudden cardiac death (SCD) in middle-aged Finnish males. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control study involving three distinct groups of subjects was carried out: (1) victims of SCD (n=98), (2) survivors of AMI (n=212), and (3) randomly selected control subjects without any history of coronary heart disease (n=243). The ANV polymorphism was genotyped in each study group. RESULTS: Among the control group of healthy Finnish males the prevalence rates of the CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 83.1%, 15.2%, and 1.6%, respectively. Among the survivors of AMI, the prevalence rates of CC, CT, and TT were 79.7%, 20.3%, and 0%, respectively, and among the victims of SCD 83.7%, 16.3%, and 0%, respectively. No significant differences in the genotype or allele distributions were observed between the study groups. CONCLUSION: The -1C to T polymorphism in the ANV gene is not associated with the risk of AMI or SCD in middle-aged Finnish males.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research was to study possible abnormalities in the beat to beat complexity of heart rate dynamics in patients with a previous myocardial infarction. BACKGROUND: Analysis of approximate entropy of time series data provides information on the complexity of both deterministic and random processes. It has been proposed that regularity or loss of complexity of RR interval dynamics may be related to pathologic states, but this hypothesis has not been well tested in cardiovascular disorders. METHODS: Approximate entropy and conventional time and frequency domain measures of RR interval variability were compared between 40 healthy subjects with no evidence of heart disease and 40 patients with coronary artery disease and a previous Q wave myocardial infarction. The groups were matched with respect to age, and cardiac medication was discontinued in the patients with coronary artery disease before the 24-h electrocardiographic recordings. RESULTS: Approximate entropy was significantly higher in the postinfarction patients (1.21 +/- 0.18 [mean +/- SD]) than in the healthy subjects (1.05 +/- 0.11, p
BACKGROUND: Beat-to-beat analysis of RR intervals can reveal patterns of heart-rate dynamics, which are not easily detected by summary measures of heart-rate variability. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that alterations in RR-interval dynamics occur before the spontaneous onset of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Ambulatory ECG recordings from 15 patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) who had spontaneous episodes of sustained VT during the recording and VT inducible by programmed electrical stimulation (VT group) were analyzed by plotting each RR interval of a sinus beat as a function of the previous one (Poincaré plot). Poincaré plots were also generated for 30 post-MI patients who had no history of spontaneous VT events and no inducible VT (MI control subjects) and for 30 age-matched subjects without heart disease (normal control subjects). The MI control subjects and VT group were matched with respect to age and severity of underlying heart disease. All the healthy subjects and MI control subjects showed fan-shaped Poincaré plots characterized by an increased next-interval difference for long RR intervals relative to short ones. All the VT patients had abnormal plots: 9 with a complex pattern, 3 ball-shaped, and 3 torpedo-shaped. Quantitative analysis of the Poincare plots showed the SD of the long-term RR-interval variability (SD2) to be smaller in all VT patients (52+/-14 ms; range, 31 to 75 ms) than in MI control subjects (110+/-24 ms; range, 78 to 179 ms, P
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to assess whether brief, repeated coronary artery occlusions during balloon angioplasty protect against ischemia-induced ventricular ectopy. BACKGROUND: Most sudden cardiac deaths are caused by fatal ventricular arrhythmias precipitated by early myocardial ischemia of acute coronary occlusion. In animals, a preceding 3- to 5-min coronary occlusion protects against malignant ventricular arrhythmias during a subsequent prolonged coronary occlusion. Whether such an antiarrhythmic effect caused by ischemic preconditioning occurs in humans is not known. METHODS: To assess the effects of a preceding, brief vessel occlusion-reperfusion cycle on the occurrence of ventricular ectopy, continuous electrocardiographic, heart rate and blood pressure recordings were performed in 156 patients before and during two identical balloon occlusions of a coronary artery (mean 111 s) separated by a 5-min equilibration period. RESULTS: The occluded vessel was the left anterior descending coronary artery in 94 patients, the left circumflex branch in 29 patients and the right coronary artery in 33 patients. Balloon occlusion of a coronary artery caused ventricular ectopy in 24 patients. The incidence of ventricular ectopy was higher during the first occlusion than during the second occlusion (21 patients [13.5%] vs. 11 patients [7%], p = 0.02). In 13 patients, ventricular ectopy was observed only during the first occlusion; in 8 patients during both occlusions; and in 3 patients only during the second occlusion. Bigeminal or repetitive ectopic beats were observed in eight patients during the first coronary occlusion and in four patients during the second occlusion. Atrial premature beats occurred during the first occlusion in three patients, but in none of the patients during the second occlusion. The 24 patients with ventricular ectopy during coronary occlusion had milder stenosis than the rest of the patients (mean [+/- SD] 74 +/- 12% vs. 81 +/- 12%, p = 0.01). The 13 patients with ventricular ectopy only during the first occlusion did not, however, differ significantly with respect to any clinical or angiographic features from the rest of the patients with ventricular ectopy. There were no significant differences in the signs of myocardial ischemia or hemodynamic variables between the sequential occlusions. CONCLUSIONS: A preceding, short vessel occlusion-reperfusion cycle seems to increase the electrical stability of ischemic myocardium.
OBJECTIVES: We tested whether acute coronary occlusion interferes with arterial baroreceptor control of heart rate in humans. BACKGROUND: Subnormal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is an important risk indicator for sudden death. Animal research indicates that both chronic myocardial infarction and acute coronary occlusion impair baroreflex modulation of heart rate. METHODS: We measured RR interval prolongation after phenylephrine-induced systolic pressure increases before and during 2-min coronary occlusions in 47 patients (27 men) undergoing clinically indicated single-vessel coronary angioplasty for stenoses in the proximal or midportion of the vessel causing >50% reduction in the arterial diameter, with normal antegrade flow (33 anterior descending, 10 circumflex, 4 right coronary artery). A control group of 11 patients treated for chronic total occlusion of a coronary artery was assessed to evaluate nonspecific changes in baroreflex function during a 2-min balloon inflation in the occluded artery. RESULTS: The BRS decreased from 5.2+/-3.8 (mean+/-SD) to 4.1+/-3.5 ms x mm Hg(-1) (p=0.01) during the coronary occlusion in the 28 patients with preserved arterial baroreceptor control of heart rate-that is, adequate blood pressure responses and correlation coefficients of the slopes both in baseline and during coronary occlusion. The same phenylephrine dose increased systolic pressure less during than before coronary artery occlusion (21+/-21 versus 36+/-16 mm Hg, p
To elucidate the potential association of diabetic autonomic neuropathy with increased prevalence of silent coronary artery disease (CAD), 138 asymptomatic diabetic subjects were screened using exercise ECG. 24-h ambulatory ECG and dynamic thallium scintigraphy. Fourteen patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia and angiographically confirmed CAD (greater than or equal to 50% coronary artery narrowing) were found using this protocol. Their autonomic nervous function was assessed using standard cardiovascular tests and compared with that of 23 consecutive diabetic patients catheterised because of symptomatic CAD (mean New York Heart Association class 3.0). The diabetic patients with symptomatic CAD had more severe coronary atherosclerosis than the diabetic patients with asymptomatic CAD assessed by jeopardy score (P less than 0.01). The groups did not, however, differ with respect to autonomic function tests. Five patients (22%) with symptomatic CAD and 3 patients (21%) with asymptomatic CAD had definite autonomic dysfunction, i.e. two or more abnormal tests. Thus, our results suggest that the frequency of autonomic neuropathy is not increased in diabetic patients with asymptomatic CAD. The contribution of diabetic autonomic neuropathy to the absence of cardiac pain needs further clinical and pathological studies.
The risk factors for asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) were examined in 138 diabetic patients. Following non-invasive screening examinations (exercise electrocardiography, dynamic thallium scintigraphy, 24-h electrocardiographic recording), CAD was confirmed angiographically in 21 symptom-free diabetic subjects with an ischaemic finding in at least one of the non-invasive tests. The prevalence of asymptomatic CAD in this cohort of diabetic patients was 21/132 (16%), which may be an underestimation because 6 patients refused angiography. Risk factors (age, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, serum lipoproteins, apoproteins and apo E phenotypes) were analysed according to the presence or absence of CAD. Multivariate logistic stepwise analysis did not show any definite changes of serum lipids, lipoproteins and apoproteins in type 1 (n = 72) and type 2 (n = 66) diabetic patients with or without asymptomatic CAD. The only factors associated with asymptomatic CAD were the duration of diabetes (P
Left ventricular diastolic function was assessed by pulsed Doppler echocardiography in 21 subjects (mean age 48 yr) with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and without evidence of ischemic heart disease and in 21 healthy control subjects of similar age and sex distribution. The peak mitral valve flow velocities during the early rapid filling phase (E) and during late atrial filling (A) were measured, and the ratio of these peak flow velocities (E:A) was calculated. E was similar in both groups, but A was higher (P less than .01) in the diabetic group. Thus, E:A was lower (1.19 +/- 0.24 vs. 1.65 +/- 0.67; P less than .01) in the diabetic subjects than in the control subjects. On subgroup analysis, 6 patients with cardiac autonomic neuropathy had lower E:A than the patients with no such disorder (0.99 +/- 0.15 vs. 1.29 +/- 0.25; P less than .05). E:A was not related to the duration of diabetes, presence of retinopathy, HbA1, or blood glucose levels. In conclusion, the atrial contribution to left ventricular filling seems to be augmented in diabetic subjects. This finding indirectly supports the view that left ventricular compliance is already reduced in asymptomatic diabetic subjects.
Because the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) modifies cardiovascular autonomic regulation, we studied the possible associations between baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and polymorphism in the RAS genes.
Wide intersubject variability in BRS is not well explained by cardiovascular risk factors or life style, suggesting a genetic component responsible for the variation of BRS.
Baroreflex sensitivity as measured from the overshoot phase of the Valsalva maneuver and genetic polymorphisms were examined in a random sample of 161 women and 154 men aged 41 to 61 years and then in an independent random cohort of 29 men and 37 women aged 36 to 37 years. An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), M235T variants of angiotensinogen (AGT) and two diallelic polymorphisms in the gene encoding aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), one in the promoter (-344C/T) and the other in the second intron, were identified by polymerase chain reaction.
In the older population, BRS differed significantly across CYP11B2 genotype groups in women (10.1 +/- 4.5, 8.7 +/- 3.8 and 7.1 +/- 3.2 ms x mm Hg(-1) in genotypes -344TT, CT and CC, respectively, p = 0.003 and 11.1 +/- 4.4, 8.9 +/- 4.1 and 7.5 +/- 3.4 ms x mm Hg(-1) in intron 2 genotypes 1/1, 1/2 and 2/2, respectively, p = 0.002), but not in men. No comparable associations were found for BRS with the I/D polymorphism of ACE or the M235T variant of AGT. In the younger population, BRS was even more strongly related to the CYP11B2 promoter genotype (p = 0.0003). The association was statistically significant both in men (p = 0.015) and in women (p = 0.03).
Common genetic polymorphisms in the aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene is associated with interindividual variation in BRS.