Gross epidemiological data indicate there are no significant differences in rates of aging osteopenia among countries with substantially different amounts of Ca in their national food supplies. This-observation, plus the fact that Ca administration fails to reverse osteoporotic bone loss, has led some investigators to conclude that Ca nutrition is an insignificant factor in the etiology of osteoporosis. However, it has become apparent that a Ca intake that may be adequate for adults consuming a low protein, low P, neural, or alkaline cereal-based diet is not necessarily adequate for subjects consuming a high protein, high P, acidic mixed Western diet. Ca administration inhibits postmenopausal osteopenia and there is epidemiological evidence that a liberal Ca intake reduces bone loss in middle adulthood. Ca intakes in the United States and Canada appear generally satisfactory among children and young adults, but low intakes by many individuals of middle age is a cause for concern, especially among women. Although the Ca:P ratio for the average diet consumed in these countries (about 1:1.6) appears to be satisfactory, a low intake of dairy foods, coupled with a high intake of other foods rich in natural and added phosphorus, may raise the ratio above 1:2, a value beyond which animal studies indicate that there is a risk of increased bone loss.
A survey was conducted during 1971-1973 on the vitamin E status of Alaskan Eskomos. The subjects were 315 residents of the northern coastal villages of Wainwright and Point Hope and the southwestern inland villages of Kasigluk and Nunapitchuk. Plasma vitamin E levels for the 6- to 17-year-old subjects at Wainwright, Point Hope, and Nunapitchuk were 0.81 plus or minus 0.26, 0.90 plus or minus 0.20, and 0.84 plus or minus 0.25 mg/100 ml (mean and standard deviation), respectively. The values for adults at Wainwright, Point Hope, and Kasigluk were 1.23 plus or minus 0.27, 1.23 plus or minus 0.27, and 1.27 plus or minus 0.33 mg/100 ml, respectively. No value less than 0.30 mg/100 ml was observed. Alpha-tocopherol was the only isomer present in significant amounts. Plasma vitamin E levels did not change significantly between 6 and 17 years of age; however, a steady increase with age was observed in the 18- to 69-year-old groups. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations were significantly lower in children than in adults but there were no differences attributable to sex or geographic location. Vitamin E concentration in the blood plasma was linearly correlated with cholesterol concentration. Values are reported for the vitamin E content of some native foods. This study indicates that plasma vitamin E levels in Alaskan Eskimos consuming a high meat or fish diet are comparable to those in adults of the United States consuming a mixed diet.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1233.