The E-cadherin (CDH1) gene has been associated with prostate carcinogenesis. The C/A polymorphism--160 base pairs relative to the transcription start site has been shown to decrease gene transcription. We analyzed the association between this polymorphism and the risk of sporadic, familial (2 close relatives) and hereditary (3 or more close relatives) prostate cancer. We combined data from 3 population-based epidemiologic studies in Sweden encompassing altogether 1,036 prostate cancer cases and 669 controls that were genotyped for the short nucleotide polymorphism. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated through unconditional logistic regression. We found no significant association between the A-allele and sporadic (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.2) or familial (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.9-2.2) prostate cancer. In contrast, risk of hereditary cancer was increased among heterozygote CA carriers (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.0-2.7) and particularly among homozygote AA carriers (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.4-4.9). Our data indicate that the -160 single nucleotide polymorphism in CDH1 is a low-penetrant prostate cancer susceptibility gene that might explain a proportion of familial and notably hereditary prostate cancer.
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a severe event for a footballer, but it is unclear if the knee injury rate is higher on returning to football after ACL injury. OBJECTIVE: To study the risk of knee injury in elite footballers with a history of ACL injury compared with those without. METHOD: The Swedish male professional league (310 players) was studied during 2001. Players with a history of ACL injury at the study start were identified. Exposure to football and all time loss injuries during the season were recorded prospectively. RESULTS: Twenty four players (8%) had a history of 28 ACL injuries in 27 knees (one rerupture). These players had a higher incidence of new knee injury of any type than the players without ACL injury (mean (SD) 4.2 (3.7) v 1.0 (0.7) injuries per 1000 hours, p = 0.02). The risk of suffering a knee overuse injury was significantly higher regardless of whether the player (relative risk 4.8, 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 11.2) or the knee (relative risk 7.9, 95% confidence interval 3.4 to 18.5) was used as the unit of analysis. No interactive effects of age or any other anthropometric data were seen. CONCLUSION: The risk of new knee injury, especially overuse injury, was significantly increased on return to elite football after ACL injury regardless of whether the player or the knee was used as the unit of analysis.
BACKGROUND: Previous injury is often proposed to be a risk factor for football injury, but most studies rely on players reporting their own medical history and are thus potentially subject to recall bias. Little is known about the natural variation in injury pattern between seasons. OBJECTIVES: To study whether prospectively recorded injuries during one season are associated with injuries sustained during the following season, and to compare injury risk and injury pattern between consecutive seasons. METHODS: The medical staffs of 12 elite Swedish male football teams prospectively recorded individual exposure and time loss injuries over two full consecutive seasons (2001 and 2002). A multivariate model was used to determine the relation between previous injury, anthropometric data, and the risk of injury. RESULTS: The training and match injury incidences were similar between seasons (5.1 v 5.3 injuries/1000 training hours and 25.9 v 22.7/1000 match hours), but analysis of injury severity and injury patterns showed variations between seasons. Players who were injured in the 2001 season were at greater risk of any injury in the following season compared with non-injured players (hazard ratio 2.7; 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 4.3, p