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Acute infections and environmental exposure to organochlorines in Inuit infants from Nunavik.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4455
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Oct;112(14):1359-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
Frédéric Dallaire
Eric Dewailly
Gina Muckle
Carole Vézina
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Pierre Ayotte
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, and Public Health Research Unit, CHUQ-Laval University Medical Center, 945 Wolfe Street, Sainte-Foy, Québec G1V 5B3, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Oct;112(14):1359-65
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Cohort Studies
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - analysis - poisoning
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - poisoning
Female
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Insecticides - analysis - poisoning
Inuits
Male
Otitis Media - epidemiology - etiology
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - poisoning
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Quebec - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
The Inuit population of Nunavik (Canada) is exposed to immunotoxic organochlorines (OCs) mainly through the consumption of fish and marine mammal fat. We investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on the incidence of acute infections in Inuit infants. We reviewed the medical charts of a cohort of 199 Inuit infants during the first 12 months of life and evaluated the incidence rates of upper and lower respiratory tract infections (URTI and LRTIs, respectively), otitis media, and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. Maternal plasma during delivery and infant plasma at 7 months of age were sampled and assayed for PCBs and DDE. Compared to rates for infants in the first quartile of exposure to PCBs (least exposed), adjusted rate ratios for infants in higher quartiles ranged between 1.09 and 1.32 for URTIs, 0.99 and 1.39 for otitis, 1.52 and 1.89 for GI infections, and 1.16 and 1.68 for LRTIs during the first 6 months of follow-up. For all infections combined, the rate ratios ranged from 1.17 to 1.27. The effect size was similar for DDE exposure but was lower for the full 12-month follow-up. Globally, most rate ratios were > 1.0, but few were statistically significant (p
PubMed ID
15471725 View in PubMed
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Alcohol, smoking, and drug use among Inuit women of childbearing age during pregnancy and the risk to children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136911
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jun;35(6):1081-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Gina Muckle
Dominique Laflamme
Jocelyne Gagnon
Olivier Boucher
Joseph L Jacobson
Sandra W Jacobson
Author Affiliation
Public Health Research Unit, CHUQ-Laval University Medical Research Center, Quebec City, QC, Canada. gina.muckle@psy.ulaval.ca
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jun;35(6):1081-91
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - ethnology
Ethanol - poisoning
Female
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders - ethnology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Inuits - ethnology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - ethnology - etiology
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - ethnology
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - ethnology
Substance-Related Disorders - complications - ethnology
Young Adult
Abstract
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, a known teratogen often associated with drug use and smoking is a well-known public health concern.
This study provides prevalence data for alcohol, smoking, and illicit drug use before, during, and after pregnancy among Inuit. Factors associated with alcohol use are also identified.
Two hundred and eight Inuit women from Arctic Quebec were interviewed at mid-pregnancy, and at 1 and 11 months postpartum to provide descriptive data on smoking, alcohol, and drug use during pregnancy, and the year before and after pregnancy. Sociodemographic and family characteristics potentially associated with alcohol use were documented.
Ninety-two percent of the women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking during pregnancy. Episodes of binging during pregnancy were reported by 62% of the alcohol users, which correspond to 38% of pregnant women. Thirty-six percent of the participants reported using marijuana during pregnancy. Alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy were more likely to be reported by women who lived in less crowded houses, had a better knowledge of a second language, drank alcohol more often and in larger amounts prior to pregnancy, and used illicit drugs. Binge drinkers were more likely to be single women and to have had fewer previous pregnancies. Postpartum distress and violence were more likely to be experienced by women who used alcohol during pregnancy. Binge drinking during pregnancy was best predicted by drinking habits before pregnancy, maternal symptoms of depression, the use of illicit drugs during pregnancy, and the number of young children living with the mother.
These results confirm that alcohol is a major risk factor to maternal and child health in this population, underscoring the need for culturally relevant and effective prevention programs.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21332531 View in PubMed
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Alcohol use among Inuit pregnant women: Validity of alcohol ascertainment measures over time.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292590
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2017 Nov; 64:73-78
Publication Type
Journal Article
Validation Studies
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Marilyn Fortin
Gina Muckle
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Richard E Bélanger
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address: marilyn.fortin@douglas.mcgill.ca.
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2017 Nov; 64:73-78
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Validation Studies
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Binge Drinking - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Inuits
Pregnancy
Prospective Studies
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Frequency and quantity of alcohol consumed by women are two important indicators of the risks associated with drinking during pregnancy. Some studies have compared the validity of maternal alcohol report obtained during and after pregnancy. However, to date none have examined alcohol use in a Native Canadian population, such as the Inuit. Effective measurement methods are necessary to better understand why children from some communities seem at increased risk of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders.
Prospective and retrospective drinking interviews were obtained from a sub-sample of 67 women included in the Nunavik Child Development Study (NCDS), Nunavik, Canada (1995-2010; N=248). Number of days of alcohol consumption and binge drinking (five drinks or more per episode) across pregnancy as well as ounces of absolute alcohol per day and per drinking day among users were collected using timeline follow-back interviews administered both during pregnancy and again 11years after delivery. Consistency of alcohol reports over time, as well as significant differences for alcohol quantities described by users between interviews were examined. Sociodemographic characteristics associated with alcohol use reports were also assessed.
The proportion of positive reports of alcohol and binge drinking during pregnancy was higher when women were interviewed prospectively during pregnancy than retrospectively. We observed a fair to moderate agreement of alcohol report between interview periods. By contrast, the number of binge drinking days during pregnancy was slightly higher among alcohol users when documented retrospectively.
Our findings endorse the conclusion that prospective alcohol measures provide more reliable ascertainment and likely generate more valid information about the proportion of children prenatally exposed to alcohol in the Inuit population.
PubMed ID
29079497 View in PubMed
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Alcohol use among Inuit pregnant women: Validity of alcohol ascertainment measures over time.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286836
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2017 Oct 24;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-24-2017
Author
Marilyn Fortin
Gina Muckle
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Richard E Bélanger
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2017 Oct 24;
Date
Oct-24-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Frequency and quantity of alcohol consumed by women are two important indicators of the risks associated with drinking during pregnancy. Some studies have compared the validity of maternal alcohol report obtained during and after pregnancy. However, to date none have examined alcohol use in a Native Canadian population, such as the Inuit. Effective measurement methods are necessary to better understand why children from some communities seem at increased risk of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders.
Prospective and retrospective drinking interviews were obtained from a sub-sample of 67 women included in the Nunavik Child Development Study (NCDS), Nunavik, Canada (1995-2010; N=248). Number of days of alcohol consumption and binge drinking (five drinks or more per episode) across pregnancy as well as ounces of absolute alcohol per day and per drinking day among users were collected using timeline follow-back interviews administered both during pregnancy and again 11years after delivery. Consistency of alcohol reports over time, as well as significant differences for alcohol quantities described by users between interviews were examined. Sociodemographic characteristics associated with alcohol use reports were also assessed.
The proportion of positive reports of alcohol and binge drinking during pregnancy was higher when women were interviewed prospectively during pregnancy than retrospectively. We observed a fair to moderate agreement of alcohol report between interview periods. By contrast, the number of binge drinking days during pregnancy was slightly higher among alcohol users when documented retrospectively.
Our findings endorse the conclusion that prospective alcohol measures provide more reliable ascertainment and likely generate more valid information about the proportion of children prenatally exposed to alcohol in the Inuit population.
PubMed ID
29079497 View in PubMed
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Altered fine motor function at school age in Inuit children exposed to PCBs, methylmercury, and lead.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275653
Source
Environ Int. 2016 Aug 26;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-26-2016
  1 document  
Author
Olivier Boucher
Gina Muckle
Pierre Ayotte
Eric Dewailly
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Source
Environ Int. 2016 Aug 26;
Date
Aug-26-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
371758
Abstract
Motor deficits have frequently been reported in methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning in adults. However, whether exposure to neurotoxic contaminants from environmental sources early in life is associated with neuromotor impairments has received relatively little attention. This study examines the relation of developmental exposure to MeHg, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lead to motor function in school-age Inuit children exposed through their traditional diet.
In a prospective study in Nunavik, children (mean age=11.3years) were assessed on a battery of fine motor tasks, namely the Stanford-Binet Copying subtest (N=262), the Santa Ana Form Board, and the Finger Tapping Test (N=215). The relation of mercury (Hg; as an index of MeHg exposure), PCB congener 153 (PCB153), and lead concentrations in cord and current blood samples to task performance was examined using linear regression analyses.
After adjustment for potential confounders and control for the other contaminants, higher current PCB concentrations were associated with poorer Santa Ana Form Board and Finger Tapping performance. Results were virtually identical when PCB153 was replaced by other PCB congeners. Higher current Hg levels were independently associated with poorer Finger Tapping performance.
This is the first prospective longitudinal study in children to provide evidence of neuromotor impairments associated with postnatal exposure to seafood contaminants from environmental sources. Fine motor speed appears particularly sensitive to the effects of postnatal PCB exposure, which is unusually high in this population. Results with postnatal MeHg are concordant with previous cross-sectional studies with children and adults.
PubMed ID
27575364 View in PubMed
Documents
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Assessing new dimensions of attentional functions in children prenatally exposed to environmental contaminants using an adapted Posner paradigm.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265112
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2015 Jul 30;51:27-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-30-2015
Author
Audrey-Anne Ethier
Gina Muckle
Sandra W Jacobson
Pierre Ayotte
Joseph L Jacobson
Dave Saint-Amour
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2015 Jul 30;51:27-34
Date
Jul-30-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Chronic exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), lead (Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with a range of attention deficits in children, but it is not known whether selective spatial attention is also altered. We modified the classic Posner paradigm, which assesses visuospatial attention, to also assess vigilance and impulsivity. This paradigm is based on the well-documented findings that a target will be detected more quickly if a visual cue indicates beforehand where it will appear, and more slowly if the cue indicates a false spatial location. In our task, visual distractors were introduced, in addition to the classic Posner trials, to assess impulsivity, and a central smiley face, whose eye-movement cued the location of the targets, to measure spatial attention. This task was administered to 27 school-age Inuit children (mean age=11.2years) from Nunavik (Arctic Quebec, Canada), in which pre- and postnatal exposures to environmental contaminants had been documented from birth. After controlling for the impact of confounding variables, multivariable regressions revealed that prenatal exposures to PCBs and Pb were significantly associated with greater inattention and impulsivity, respectively, while current exposure to Pb was significantly associated with longer reaction times. Although a significant correlation was observed between cord blood PCB concentration and decreased visuospatial performance, no significant association was found after adjustment for confounders. No effect was found for Hg exposures. These results suggest that our adapted Posner paradigm is sensitive in detecting a range of attention deficits in children exposed to environmental contaminants; implications for future studies are discussed.
PubMed ID
26235045 View in PubMed
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Assessment of pre- and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: lessons from the Inuit Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4473
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jul;111(9):1253-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2003
Author
Pierre Ayotte
Gina Muckle
Joseph L Jacobson
Sandra W Jacobson
Eric Dewailly
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University and Public Health Research Unit, CHUQ-Laval University Medical Centre, Québec, Québec, Canada. pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jul;111(9):1253-8
Date
Jul-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Biological Markers - analysis
Breast Feeding
Chromatography, Gas
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood
Epidemiologic Studies
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Forecasting
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Milk, human - chemistry
Models, Theoretical
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Pregnancy
Quebec - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Abstract
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are food-chain contaminants that have been shown to induce adverse developmental effects in humans. In the course of an epidemiologic study established to investigate neurodevelopmental deficits induced by environmental PCB exposure in the Inuit population of northern Québec (Nunavik, Canada), we compared three biomarkers of prenatal exposure and models to predict PCB plasma concentration at 6 months postpartum. Concentrations of 14 PCB congeners were measured by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection in lipids extracted from maternal plasma, cord plasma, breast milk (collected at approximately 1 month postpartum), and 6-month-old infant plasma samples. Similar congener profiles were observed in all biologic samples, and PCB-153, the most abundant and persistent PCB congener, was strongly correlated with other frequently detected PCB congeners in all biologic media. When expressed on a lipid basis, maternal plasma, cord plasma, and milk concentrations of this congener were strongly intercorrelated, indicating that PCB concentration in any of these biologic media is a good indicator of prenatal exposure to PCBs. A multivariate model that included maternal PCB-153 plasma lipid concentration, breast-feeding duration, and the sum of two skin-fold thicknesses (an index of infant body fat mass) explained 72% of PCB-153 plasma concentration variance at 6 months postpartum (p
PubMed ID
12842782 View in PubMed
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Associations between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and externalized behaviors at school age among Inuit children exposed to environmental contaminants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258359
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013 Sep-Oct;39:84-90
Publication Type
Article
  1 document  
Author
Caroline Desrosiers
Olivier Boucher
Nadine Forget-Dubois
Eric Dewailly
Pierre Ayotte
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Gina Muckle
Author Affiliation
Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada; Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec City, Québec, Canada.
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013 Sep-Oct;39:84-90
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
63846
Keywords
Attention - drug effects
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - chemically induced - epidemiology - psychology
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders - chemically induced - psychology
Child
Drug Interactions
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Inuits - psychology
Lead Poisoning, Nervous System, Childhood - blood - psychology
Male
Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System - blood - psychology
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced - psychology
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Qu?bec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored.
Participants were 271 children (mean age=11.3years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child's classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview.
After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants.
This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23916943 View in PubMed
Documents
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Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids in relation to behavioral problems among young Inuit from Nunavik, Canada: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291899
Source
Pediatr Res. 2017 Sep; 82(3):416-422
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Audray St-Jean
Salma Meziou
Cynthia Roy
Pierre Ayotte
Gina Muckle
Michel Lucas
Author Affiliation
Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit, CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
Source
Pediatr Res. 2017 Sep; 82(3):416-422
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Amino Acids, Aromatic - metabolism
Amino Acids, Branched-Chain - metabolism
Child
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Inuits
Male
Nunavut
Problem behavior
Abstract
BackgroundObesity and insulin resistance are linked with mood disorders, and elevated concentrations of branched-chain (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs). Our study aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between childhood plasma BCAAs and AAAs, and behavioral problems in young Inuit from Nunavik.MethodsWe analyzed data on 181 children (with a mean age of 11.4 years at baseline) involved in the Nunavik Child Development Study. Plasma BCAA and AAA concentrations were measured in childhood (2005-2010). BCAA/AAA tertiles-the ratio of total BCAAs to AAAs-were considered as surrogate categorical independent variables. Behavioral problems were assessed with the Youth Self-Report (YSR) from the Child Behavior Checklist about 7 years later during adolescence (2013-2016). ANOVA ascertained relationships between BCAA/AAA tertiles and YSR outcomes.ResultsAscending BCAA/AAA tertiles were positively associated (Ptrend
Notes
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PubMed ID
28486439 View in PubMed
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Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids in relation to behavioral problems among young Inuit from Nunavik, Canada: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282388
Source
Pediatr Res. 2017 May 09;
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-09-2017
Author
Audray St-Jean
Salma Meziou
Cynthia Roy
Pierre Ayotte
Gina Muckle
Michel Lucas
Source
Pediatr Res. 2017 May 09;
Date
May-09-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
BACKGROUNDObesity and insulin resistance are linked with mood disorders, and elevated concentrations of branched-chain (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs). Our study aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between childhood plasma BCAAs and AAAs and behavioral problems in young Inuit from Nunavik.METHODSWe analyzed data on 181 children (mean age 11.4 years at baseline) involved in the Nunavik Child Development Study. Plasma BCAA and AAA concentrations were measured in childhood (2005-2010). BCAA/AAA tertiles - the ratio of total BCAAs to AAAs-were considered as a surrogate categorical independent variable. Behavioral problems were assessed with the Youth Self-Report (YSR) from the Child Behavior Checklist about 7 years later during adolescence (2013-2016). ANOVA ascertained relationships between BCAA/AAA tertiles and YSR outcomes.RESULTSAscending BCAA/AAA tertiles were positively associated (Ptrend
PubMed ID
28486439 View in PubMed
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