BACKGROUND: To investigate a possible effect of age on maternal androgen levels in uncomplicated pregnancies. METHODS: A study of 134 parous women with uncomplicated pregnancies was carried out at three university hospitals in Norway and Sweden. Maternal levels of androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone and the free testosterone index were measured during weeks 17 and 33 of pregnancy. RESULTS: Maternal levels of androstenedione and testosterone had a negative association with maternal age in weeks 17 and 33 of pregnancy, while dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and the free testosterone index were associated negatively in week 33 only. Adjustment for maternal parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking and fetal gender did not affect the results. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal androgen levels decrease with increasing maternal age. The cause and possible implication of this finding remain unknown.
In this study from the city of Trondheim during 1979-81 nulliparae were found to be younger, higher educated, and more actively working outside the home than parous women. Most women were examined by their GP during the first trimester, and were seen about 10 times on average during the pregnancy. Women who smoked tended to consult later in pregnancy than the non-smokers. Drugs were prescribed for 33% of the women during their pregnancy, 10% during the first trimester. Medication was most frequently prescribed for genitourinary disorders. Sick leave was often the result of low-back-pain and lasted on average 5 weeks longer in parous women. Hospitalization was most often due to hypertension and threatened premature labour and lasted on average longer among nulliparae. Controlled trials are needed to evaluate future antenatal care provision in the light of pregnancy outcome.
AIMS: To evaluate whether being born small for gestational age (SGA) was associated with an increased frequency of preschool behavioral problems. STUDY DESIGN: Follow-up study at 5 years of age. SUBJECTS: A population based cohort of 318 term infants who were SGA, defined as having a birthweight less than the 15th percentile for gestational age, and without major handicap such as cerebral palsy or mental retardation, and a random control sample of 307 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. OUTCOME MEASURES: The Personality Inventory for Children and the Yale Children's Inventory (completed by the mothers), and child behavior during psychometric testing. RESULTS: Behavior problems was not more common among the SGA children. The results were not confounded by a wide range of parental demographic and child rearing factors, including maternal non-verbal problem solving abilities, child rearing style, and maternal psychological distress. However, the parental factors explained 13% of the variance in a summary score of child behavior compared to 1% explained by SGA vs. AGA status. The SGA children were not more sensitive to the negative impacts of parental risk factors than AGA controls. The study does not address the outcome of severely growth-retarded SGA infants. CONCLUSION: Being born moderately SGA is not a significant risk factor for preschool behavior problems.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in biometric measurements and corresponding refractive errors during a three-year period among university students exposed to high educational demands. METHODS: A three-year longitudinal cohort study was performed among 149 Norwegian engineering students (79 females and 70 males, mean age 20.6+/-1.2 years) measuring their refraction and ocular dimensions at the beginning and at the end of the period. The examinations included refraction, keratometry, and A-scan ultrasonographic measurements of the ocular components, all made in cycloplegia. RESULTS: After three years the mean refractive change was -0.52+/-0.45 D (p
BACKGROUND: We wanted to examine if infants who were small for gestational age (SGA) at term had increased perinatal mortality or morbidity compared to non-SGA infants, and if this could be related to the infant's body proportions, or to whether the mother previously had delivered a low-birthweight infant ("repeater") or not ("non-repeater"). METHODS: From a cohort of 5722 para 1 and para 2 women, we compared perinatal mortality in 541 SGA (birthweight
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the maternal level of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPA) measured by anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and fetal growth retardation (SGA).
A nested case control design was carried out in a prospective cohort study of 1552 para I and para II women. The study group consisted of all 138 women who gave birth to a SGA-child (defined as birthweight
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine if placentas of small- for-gestational-age (SGA) and non-SGA infants differ with respect to proliferative cell activity. METHOD: Cell cycle distribution was studied in placentas from 181 SGA (birthweight
A comprehensive computerized database of diving activity for a Norwegian offshore diving contractor [Stolt-Nielsen Seaway (SNS)] covering the years 1983-1990 has been established. The database contains detailed dive information about 12,087 surface-oriented and 2,622 saturation dives. During this period a majority of the divers were permanently employed. Preliminary analysis had suggested that decompression sickness (DCS) might be the result of exposure to factors causing pathophysiologic effects which accumulate over the course of a single dive or a series of dives. This concept evolved into the HADES (Highest Accumulated Decompression Score) theory which assumes that DCS is predictable once the underlying exposure factors are understood. The incidence of DCS among the SNS divers from saturation diving in the North Sea was studied by use of a "nested" case-control design. Twenty-one case dives (i.e., dives where DCS occurred) were compared with 41 randomly selected control dives. For these dives, several saturation dive characteristics were established. The relative pressure change between maximum and minimum storage depths was significantly greater among the cases. For each 1% increase in the relative pressure change there was a 5% increase in the probability of a saturation dive resulting in DCS. Significantly more cases than controls performed a saturation dive with more than one storage depth, and the data suggested that there were more and greater ascending and descending changes in storage depth conditions among the affected divers.