The relationships between objectively measured abdominal and gynoid adipose mass with the prospective risk of myocardial infarction (MI) has been scarcely investigated. We aimed to investigate the associations between fat distribution and the risk of MI.
Total and regional fat mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 2336 women and 922 men, of whom 104 subsequently experienced an MI during a mean follow-up time of 7.8 years.
In women, the strongest independent predictor of MI was the ratio of abdominal to gynoid adipose mass (hazard ratio (HR)=2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.79-3.32 per s.d. increase in adipose mass), after adjustment for age and smoking. This ratio also showed a strong association with hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and hypertriglyceridemia (P
Previous studies have indicated that fat distribution is important in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the association between fat distribution, as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the incidence of stroke.
A cohort of 2751 men and women aged =40 years was recruited. Baseline levels of abdominal, gynoid and total body fat were measured by DXA. Body mass index (BMI, kg?m(-2)) was calculated. Stroke incidence was recorded using the regional stroke registry until subjects reached 75 years of age.
During a mean follow-up time of 8 years and 9 months, 91 strokes occurred. Of the adiposity indices accessed abdominal fat mass was the best predictor of stroke in women (hazard ratio (HR)=1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.23-2.24 per standard deviation increase), whereas the ratio of gynoid fat to total fat mass was associated with a decreased risk of stroke (HR=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.96). Abdominal fat mass was the only of the adiposity indices assessed that was found to be a significant predictor of stroke in men (HR=1.49, 95% CI=1.06-2.09). The associations between abdominal fat mass and stroke remained significant in both women and men after adjustment for BMI (HR=1.80, 95% CI=1.06-3.07; HR=1.71, 95% CI=1.13-2.59, respectively). However, in a subgroup analyses abdominal fat was not a significant predictor after further adjustment for diabetes, smoking and hypertension.
Abdominal fat mass is a risk factor for stroke independent of BMI, but not independent of diabetes, smoking and hypertension. This indicates that the excess in stroke risk associated with abdominal fat mass is at least partially mediated through traditional stroke risk factors.
Middle-aged women with active commuting had significantly lower risk for wrist fracture than women commuting by car/bus.
Our purpose was to investigate whether a physically active lifestyle in middle-aged women was associated with a reduced risk of later sustaining a low-trauma wrist fracture.
The Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis (UFO) study is a population-based nested case-control study investigating associations between lifestyle and fragility fractures. From a cohort of ~35,000 subjects, we identified 376 female wrist fracture cases who had reported data regarding their commuting habits, occupational, and leisure physical activity, before they sustained their fracture. Each fracture case was compared with at least one control drawn from the same cohort and matched for age and week of reporting data, yielding a total of 778 subjects. Mean age at baseline was 54.3?±?5.8 years, and mean age at fracture was 60.3?±?5.8 years.
Conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for height, body mass index, smoking, and menopausal status showed that subjects with active commuting (especially walking) were at significantly lower risk of sustaining a wrist fracture (OR 0.48; 95 % CI 0.27-0.88) compared with those who commuted by car or bus. Leisure time activities such as dancing and snow shoveling were also associated with a lower fracture risk, whereas occupational activity, training, and leisure walking or cycling were unrelated to fracture risk.
This study suggests that active commuting is associated with a lower wrist fracture risk, in middle-aged women.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) have been proposed to be an independent risk factor for stroke. To test this hypothesis, a nested case-control study was performed to compare aCL with the other known risk factors for stroke. METHODS: Within the framework of the World Health Organization Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) project and the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP) health survey, 44 725 men and women were enrolled and followed up from January 1, 1985, through August 31, 1996. Individuals free from cardiovascular events were followed up, and 123 developed stroke (on average, 34.1 months after blood sampling; 21 cerebral hemorrhage and 102 cerebral infarction); they were compared with 241 age- and sex-matched control subjects from the same population. ELISA was used for the analysis of IgG, IgM, and IgA aCL. RESULTS: IgM-aCL were present in 11.4% of patients (14/123) who developed stroke and in 4. 1% of individuals (10/241) who remained healthy (P=0.013, OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.28 to 6.89). The OR for the levels of IgM-aCL was 1.34 (P=0. 01, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.68) without adjustment for other risk factors and 1.24 when adjusted for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and use of smokeless tobacco (P=0.077, 95% CI 0. 98 to 1.56). There was no difference between patients and controls for the prevalence or level of IgG-aCL and IgA-aCL and also no difference between patients with cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction for the prevalence of all 3 isotypes of aCL. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that aCL are associated with future stroke but do not constitute an independent risk factor.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the absorption of dietary selenium in humans, especially of milk selenium. DESIGN:: 1-day meal studies in subjects with ileostomy. SETTING: Hospital outpatient clinics. SUBJECTS: Three subjects in the pilot study and nine subjects in the main study (eight men/ four women). INTERVENTION: Different beverages, 1 l/day, were given in addition to basal diets (soft drink, 1 week; low-fat milk, 3 weeks; fermented low-fat milk, 3 weeks and soft drink, 1 week). Ileostomy effluents were collected during the last 2 days in each of the four periods. RESULTS: On days when the subjects were given 1 l of low-fat milk, the estimated fractional absorption of total dietary selenium was 65.5 (2.3)% (mean (s.d.), n=18), which was similar to the value when fermented low-fat milk was given (64.1 (3.2)%). However, both the calculated amount of milk selenium absorbed (10.9 (2.4) vs 9.4 (1.7) microg selenium) and its fractional absorption (73.3 (16.1) vs 64.1 (11.2)%, n=18) were significantly higher for milk than for fermented milk. CONCLUSIONS: Selenium from milk and other sources is well absorbed in subjects with ileostomy. The real absorption may be even higher than the values shown.
In Norsjö in Northern Sweden a cardiovascular intervention programme, for adults is presently tested. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of factors related to cardiovascular disease in all 15-year-old adolescents living in Norsjö in 1987 and 1988. The total cholesterol concentration in serum, as an average for the test period, was 4.2 mmol/l and 4.7 mmol/l for boys and girls, respectively. Fourteen per cent of the boys and 32% of the girls had a total cholesterol concentration exceeding 5 mmol/l. Twenty-seven per cent of the adolescents had high values for two or more variables related to risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The evaluation of the dietary registrations showed unsatisfactory values for fibre, P/S ratio and total fat. The dietary habits were better in the 15-year-olds in 1988 than in 1987 as judged by significantly higher average daily intake of fibre as well as a higher content of fibre per megajoule in the food.
OBJECTIVES: This paper evaluates the 10-year outcomes of a Northern Sweden community intervention program for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with special reference to the social patterning of risk development. METHODS: Using a quasi-experimental design, trends in risk factors and predicted mortality in an intervention area (Norsjö municipality) are compared with those in a reference area (Northern Sweden region) by repeated independent cross-sectional surveys. RESULTS: There were significant differences in changes in total cholesterol level and systolic blood pressure between the intervention and reference populations. The predicted coronary heart disease mortality (based on the North Karelia risk equation). after adjustment for age and education, was reduced by 36% in the intervention area and by 1% in the reference area. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a long-term community-based CVD prevention program which combines population and individual strategies can substantially promote a health shift in CVD risk in a high risk rural population. When evaluated for different social strata, we found no signs of an increasing health gap between socially privileged and less privileged groups. Socially less-privileged groups benefited the most from the present prevention program.
Since 1985 a 10 year prevention programme aiming to reduce cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been running in the county of Västerbotten in Northern Sweden. The project started in Norsjö. The present investigation is a study on dietary intake, medical CVD risk factors and dental caries in five cross-sectional groups of 15-year-olds during 5 years (1987-1991) of the "Norsjö project". Most of the measured medical and dietary variables followed a similar trend, i.e. a positive trend during the first 3 years (1987-1989) and in the last 2 years (1990-1991) the averages returned towards baseline values. Dental caries prevalence followed a similar trend. Parental educational level did not have a major influence on diet or medical CVD risk factors, but higher caries scores were noted in adolescents with parents with "low" education compared with adolescents where the parents had higher educational levels. The results from the study also point to the fact that dental caries prevalence together with body mass index may indicate adolescents with CVD risk factors at unfavourable levels. Dietary counselling by dental personnel to adolescents with high caries and moderate obesity can be of advantage in reducing caries risk, as well as risk for development of CVD at higher ages.
OBJECTIVE: Using a nested case-referent design we evaluated the relationship between plasma levels of six carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, and retinol, sampled before diagnosis, and later breast cancer risk. METHODS: In total, 201 cases and 290 referents were selected from three population-based cohorts in northern Sweden, where all subjects donated blood samples at enrolment. All blood samples were stored at -80 degrees C. Cases and referents were matched for age, age of blood sample, and sampling centre. Breast cancer cases were identified through the regional and national cancer registries. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of carotenoids were positively intercorrelated. In analysis of three cohorts as a group none of the carotenoids was found to be significantly related to the risk of developing breast cancer. Similarly, no significant associations between breast cancer risk and plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol or retinol were found. However, in postmenopausal women from a mammography cohort with a high number of prevalent cases, lycopene was significantly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. A significant trend of an inverse association between lutein and breast cancer risk was seen in premenopausal women from two combined population-based cohorts with only incident cases. A non-significant reduced risk with higher plasma alpha-carotene was apparent throughout all the sub-analyses. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, no significant associations were found between plasma levels of carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol or retinol and breast cancer risk in analysis of three combined cohorts. However, results from stratified analysis by cohort membership and menopausal status suggest that lycopene and other plasma-carotenoids may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer and that menopausal status has an impact on the mechanisms involved.