The American Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) is a new instrument for evaluating functional performance in disabled children aged 6 months to 7.5 years. It was developed to determine a child's functional capacity and performance in three domains, self-care, mobility and social function, as reflected in scores on three scales: (i) functional skills (current capability in specific tasks), (ii) caregiver assistance (i.e. provided to facilitate the child's performance), and (iii) modifications (i.e. environmental or technical modifications needed to facilitate the child's function). The present study was designed to compare results obtained using the PEDI in a Swedish sample with the American normative data, and to analyse the content and relevance of PEDI items for use in Sweden. The PEDI was administered as a questionnaire in structured interview form to the parents of 52 non-disabled Swedish children aged 2.0-6.9 years, divided into ten age groups. Correlation analysis (Pearson's r) showed scores for the Swedish sample to manifest strong correlation with the respective American normative data, both for the functional skills (r = 0.90-0.98) and caregiver assistance (r = 0.93-0.99) scales, respectively. Scores for the modification scale were not compared. Thus, the results suggest the American normative data to be appropriate for reference purposes in Sweden.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the reliability of quantitative measurement of minimum hip joint space with a qualitative global assessment of radiological features for estimating the prevalence of primary osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip in colon radiographs. METHODS: All colon radiographs from patients aged 35 or older, taken at three different radiographic departments in Iceland during the years 1990-96, were examined. A total of 3002 hips in 638 men and 863 women were analysed. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was assessed by measuring 147 randomly selected radiographs (294 hips) twice by the same observer, and 87 and 98 randomly selected radiographs (174 and 196 hips) by two additional independent observers. Minimum hip joint space was measured with a millimetre ruler, and global assessment of radiological features by a published atlas. RESULTS: With a minimum joint space of 2.5 mm or less as definition for OA, 212 hips were defined as having OA. When the global Kellgren and Lawrence assessment with grade 2 (definite narrowing in the presence of definite osteophytes) or higher as definition for OA was used, 202 hips showed OA. However, only 166 hips were diagnosed as OA with both systems. With 2.0 or 3.0 mm minimum joint space as cut off point, the difference between the two methods increased. Both intrarater and interrater reliability was significantly higher with joint space measurement than with global assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Overall prevalence of radiological OA was similar with the two methods. However, the quantitative measurement of minimum hip joint space had a better within-observer and between-observer reliability than qualitative global assessment of radiographic features of hip OA. It is thus suggested that minimum joint space measurement is a preferable method in epidemiological studies of radiological hip OA.
The gross motor function and disabilities in children with cerebral palsy in southern Sweden were investigated and related to clinical features. The study covered the birth year period 1990-1993 and comprised 167 children, 145 of them born in Sweden and 22 born abroad. The clinical features and gross motor function were analysed at a mean age of 6.8 y. Clinical features were obtained from a continuing healthcare follow-up programme. Gross motor function was classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Walking independently was possible for 86% of the hemiplegic, 63% of the pure ataxic, 61% of the diplegic and 21% of the dyskinetic children. None of the tetraplegic children was able to walk. The classification of gross motor function revealed that 59% of the children were categorized into levels I and II (mildly disabled), 14% into level III (moderately disabled) and 27% into levels IV and V (severely disabled). Children born abroad were more severely disabled. CONCLUSION: The standardized age-related classification system GMFCS enabled a specific description of gross motor function in relation to clinical features. Significant differences between GMFCS levels and subgroups of diagnosis, aetiology. intellectual capacity, epilepsy and visual impairment were found.
The prevalence, clinical features and gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in southern Sweden were investigated. The study covered the birth year period 1990-1993, during which 65,514 livebirths were recorded in the area. On the census date (1 January 1998), 68366 children born in 1990-1993 lived in the area. The study comprised 167 children, 145 of them born in Sweden and 22 born abroad. The livebirth prevalence was 2.2 per 1,000, and the prevalence including children born abroad was 2.4 per 1,000. The distribution according to gestational age, birthweight and subdiagnoses was similar to that in earlier Swedish studies, except for a higher rate of dyskinetic syndromes in this study. CONCLUSION: The point prevalence of cerebral palsy was 2.4 and the livebirth prevalence was 2.2. Children born abroad had a higher prevalence and were more often severely disabled. Severe disability was often combined with associated impairments such as mental retardation, epilepsy and visual impairment.
Five hundred thirty-two cases of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (physiolysis colli femoris--PCF) treated at three orthopedic departments in southern Sweden between 1910 and 1982 were used for epidemiologic studies. Three hundred twenty-five cases came from a well-defined area and were used for incidence analyses. During the whole period of investigation, the disease was more common in men than in women. The difference was more pronounced in the earlier years of the investigation and among patients living in the country compared with patients living in the city. The mean age at onset of slipping has decreased in men from 16.0 to 12.7 years and has decreased in women from 12.6 to 11.8 years since the beginning of the century. The left hip is affected more often than is the right, especially in men, but during the past decades there has been a tendency toward equalization. Bilateral slipping was evident in 25.4% of the men and in 17.7% of the women. Men living outside the city were at higher risk for bilateral involvement than were men living in the city. In women, the situation was the opposite. The incidence has followed a periodic pattern with peaks approximately every 20th year. The mean incidence (number of cases/10,000 living born) during the period of growth was 6.1 in men and 3.0 in women. The maximal risk is supposed to be 25.7 in men and 20.5 in women. Men living in the country have always been at higher risk compared with men living in the city. Since the fifties, the incidence in women has also been higher in those living in the country. In women, the incidence was significantly higher between May and August. No seasonal variations were seen in men.
We report the incidence of total hip replacements performed in Iceland between 1982 and 1996. During this period, 3,403 hip arthroplasties were done. The annual number of procedures increased from 94 hips in 1982 to 323 hips in 1996. Annual rates of total hip replacements due to primary osteoarthrosis per 10(5) inhabitants were 68 in 1982-1986, 90 in 1987-1991, and 114 in 1992-1996. In the years 1992-1996, the age-standardized incidence of total hip replacements for primary osteoarthrosis was 3/10(5) among patients younger than 39 years of age, while it was 621/10(5) among those 70-79 years of age. The mean age at surgery for primary osteoarthrosis was 69 years in both men and women. Incidence rates in various countries are difficult to compare, but by using age-standardized data and correction for differences in population structures between Iceland and Sweden, we find that the incidence of total hip replacement for primary osteoarthrosis of the hip is at least 50% higher in Iceland than in Sweden. This difference is consistent with the higher prevalence of hip osteoarthrosis observed in Iceland than in Sweden.
A long-term follow-up of 49 patients with an average age of 38 years (range: 25-67 years) who had experienced infantile Blount's disease was done. Thirty-seven patients had bilateral disease, giving a total of 86 affected knees. Thirty-eight knees had conservative or no treatment during childhood; 13 were treated by epiphysiodesis, and 35 by osteotomy. At follow-up, 11 knees showed arthrosis, and 9 were graded as mild. Ten knees had been surgically treated by medial meniscectomy at an average age of 29 years (range: 19-45 years), after the diagnosis of Blount's disease. Four of the knees showed arthrosis. Most of the patients had a straight leg and mild or no pain from their knee. It is concluded that most children with infantile Blount's disease will, at the age of 40 years, have a straight leg without arthrosis and that one third can reach this result without any treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of primary hip osteoarthritis (OA) in Iceland. To compare the prevalence of primary hip OA in Iceland with published rates of primary hip OA for related Scandinavian populations. METHODS: Roentgenographs were examined of 1530 Icelandic people 35 years or older (653 males, 877 females) subjected to colon radiography during the years 1990-1996. The radiographs examined represent approximately 40% of all colon radiographs taken in Iceland during this period. After exclusion of non-primary hip OA cases, the minimum hip joint space was measured with a mm ruler. Presence of hip OA was defined as a minimum joint space of 2.5 mm or less on an anteroposterior radiograph. Intraclass correlation coefficients for inter and intraobserver variability of assessment of mm joint space were 0.91 and 0.95, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 1517 people included, 227 hips in 165 patients (77 men, 88 women) were diagnosed as having radiological primary hip OA. The mean age at colon examination for these patients was 68 (35-89) years. The overall prevalence of coxarthrosis among all examined patients 35 years and older was 10.8% (12% for men, 10% for women), rising from 2% at 35-39 years to 35.4% for those 85 years or older. If the population structure (age and sex distribution) for those older than 35 years in Iceland was used to standardise prevalence for both Iceland and south Sweden (using previously published data for south Sweden), the age and sex standardised prevalence of hip OA for those older than 35 years in Iceland was 8%, compared with 1.2% for south Sweden. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of radiological primary hip OA is very high in Iceland, and in excess of fivefold higher than the prevalence found by using similar techniques in studies on related populations in southern Scandinavia. The rate difference is particularly notable for those younger than 70 years.