A total population of high-school students aged 16-17 years in a Swedish town was screened for depression and previous suicide attempts, and 2300 students (93.3%) participated. Those with high depression scores (12.3%) and previous suicide attempts (2.4%), as well as controls matched for gender and education, were interviewed for diagnosis (DICA-R-A), and 88.8% participated. The 1-year prevalence of major depression was 5.8% and the lifetime prevalence was 11.4%, with four girls being represented for every boy. A depression lasting for at least 1 year was the most common type. Dysthymia was found in 2% (two girls for every boy). Short hypomanic episodes were present in 13.2% of those with a lifetime diagnosis of major depression.
In a study of a total high-school population, 2300 students aged 16-17 years were screened for depression (BDI, CES-DC). Those with a self-evaluation indicating depression, together with controls matched for sex, age, and class were interviewed (DICA-R-A). The 177 pairs, where both individuals were interviewed and the control had no lifetime diagnosis of depression, were analysed in the form of paired differences for psychosocial factors and compared within diagnostic groups. The psychosocial factors were measured with the ISSI subscales and six attitude questions about family climate (KSP). Adolescents with an episode of major depression during part of the last year did not differ from their controls. Those with long-lasting depressive symptoms, i.e. dysthymia with or without episodes of major depression, had a more limited social interaction and were not satisfied with it. They also evaluated their family climate and attachment network as being more inadequate than did their controls. Depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder had a more negative evaluation of availability and adequacy of both social interaction and attachment network than their controls. This group had a very negative view of their family climate. Since this is a case-control study conclusions cannot be drawn about cause and effect.
A data base system has been designed at the pediatric intensive care unit of St. Görans Hospital in Stockholm. Information on all cases treated during 1982 was retrieved, including information from another file containing data on inpatient stays in the county of Stockholm. Thus an automatic follow-up study was made and the results of intensive care were expressed as mortality occurring at the intensive care unit (ICU), mortality up to 180 days after discharge, average length of stay in the ICU and average number of bed days as inpatients from discharge from the ICU up to 180 days later. Altogether, 705 ICU days of 626 patients were retrieved. Mortality in the ICU was 8.6% and increased to 12.5% 180 days after discharge from the ICU. The average period of hospitalization after discharge from the ICU was 19 days. Cases diagnosed as IRDS were studied specifically and the mortality was 53% in cases with birth weights less than 1500 g and 13% in cases with birth weights of 1500 g or more. High mortality and long hospitalization after discharge from the ICU was seen in cases with neurological complications. All information was retrieved interactively from a display terminal at the department. This could be done at any hour of the day.