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Changes in summer temperature and heat-related mortality since 1971 in North Carolina, South Finland, and Southeast England.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186902
Source
Environ Res. 2003 Jan;91(1):1-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
G C Donaldson
W R Keatinge
S. Näyhä
Author Affiliation
St Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, London E1 4NS, UK.
Source
Environ Res. 2003 Jan;91(1):1-7
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
England - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Greenhouse Effect
Hot Temperature - adverse effects
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
North Carolina - epidemiology
Regression Analysis
Seasons
Sex Factors
Abstract
Three climatically diverse regions were studied to determine the impact of temperature change on heat-related mortality from 1971 to 1997. Median regressions showed that May-August temperatures in North Carolina rose by 1.0 degrees C (95% CL 0.0-2.0 degrees C) from 23.5 degrees C (74.3 degrees F), were unchanged in South Finland at 13.5 degrees C (56.3 degrees F), and rose in Southeast England 2.1 degrees C (0.3-4.0 degrees C) from 14.9 degrees C (58.8 degrees F). After determining for each region the daily temperature (as a 3 degrees C band) at which the mortality was the lowest, annual heat-related mortality was obtained as excess mortality per million at temperatures above this. Annual heat-related mortality per million (among the population at risk, aged 55+) fell in North Carolina by 212 (59-365) from 228 (140-317) to only 16 (not significant, NS); fell in South Finland by 282 (66-500) from 382 (257-507) to 99 (NS); and fell in Southeast England by 2.4 (NS) from 111 (41-180) to 108 (41-176). The falls in North Carolina and South Finland remained significant after allowances were made for changes in age, sex, and baseline mortality. Increased air conditioning probably explains the virtual disappearance of heat-related mortality in the hottest region, North Carolina, despite warmer summers. Other lifestyle changes associated with increasing prosperity probably explain the favorable trends in the cooler regions.
PubMed ID
12550082 View in PubMed
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Cold related mortalities and protection against cold in Yakutsk, eastern Siberia: observation and interview study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature54348
Source
BMJ. 1998 Oct 10;317(7164):978-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-10-1998
Author
G C Donaldson
S P Ermakov
Y M Komarov
C P McDonald
W R Keatinge
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiology, Basic Medical Sciences, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, London E1 4NS.
Source
BMJ. 1998 Oct 10;317(7164):978-82
Date
Oct-10-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cerebrovascular Disorders - mortality
Clothing - statistics & numerical data
Cold Climate
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Myocardial Ischemia - mortality
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiration Disorders - mortality
Russia - epidemiology
Survival Rate
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess how effectively measures adopted in extreme cold in Yakutsk control winter mortality. DESIGN: Interviews to assess outdoor clothing and measure indoor temperatures; regressions of these and of delayed cause-specific mortalities on temperature. Setting Yakutsk, east Siberia, Russia. SUBJECTS: All people aged 50-59 and 65-74 years living within 400 km of Yakutsk during 1989-95 and sample of 1002 men and women who agreed to be interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily mortality from all causes and from ischaemic heart, cerebrovascular, and respiratory disease. RESULTS: Mean temperature for October-March 1989-95 was -26.6 degreesC. At 10.2 degrees C people wore 3.30 (95% confidence interval 3.08 to 3.53) layers of clothing outdoors, increasing to 4.39 (4.13 to 4.66; P
Notes
Comment In: BMJ. 2001 Jul 21;323(7305):166-711491078
PubMed ID
9765165 View in PubMed
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Mortality related to cold and air pollution in London after allowance for effects of associated weather patterns.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46090
Source
Environ Res. 2001 Jul;86(3):209-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2001
Author
W R Keatinge
G C Donaldson
Author Affiliation
Biomedical Sciences, St. Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS, United Kingdom.
Source
Environ Res. 2001 Jul;86(3):209-16
Date
Jul-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects - analysis
Cold Climate - adverse effects
Humans
London
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Smoke - adverse effects - analysis
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Temperature
Time Factors
Weather
Abstract
We looked for atypical weather patterns that could confound, and explain large inconsistencies in, conventional estimates of mortality due to SO(2), CO, and smoke. Using Greater London data for 1976-1995 in the linear temperature/mortality range 0-15 degrees C we determined weather patterns associated with pollutants (all deseasonalized) by single regressions of daily temperature, wind, rain, humidity, and sunshine at successive days advance and delay. Polluted days were colder (P0.05) some increase with smoke, perhaps acting as surrogate for PM(10), for which data were too scanty to analyze.
PubMed ID
11453671 View in PubMed
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Winter mortality and cold stress in Yekaterinburg, Russia: interview survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature54423
Source
BMJ. 1998 Feb 14;316(7130):514-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-14-1998
Author
G C Donaldson
V E Tchernjavskii
S P Ermakov
K. Bucher
W R Keatinge
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiology, Basic Medical Sciences, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London.
Source
BMJ. 1998 Feb 14;316(7130):514-8
Date
Feb-14-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Cause of Death
Clothing - statistics & numerical data
Cold
Cold Climate
Female
Health Surveys
Heating - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Russia - epidemiology
Seasons
Shivering
Stress - mortality
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate how mortality and protective measures against exposure to cold change as temperatures fall between October and March in a region of Russia with a mean winter temperature below -6 degrees C. DESIGN: Interview to assess factors associated with cold stress both indoors and outdoors, to measure temperatures in living room, and to survey unheated rooms. SETTING: Sverdlovsk Oblast (district), Yekaterinburg, Russia. SUBJECTS: Residents aged 50-59 and 65-74 living within approximately 140 km of Yekaterinburg in Sverdlovsk Oblast. Survey of sample of 1000 residents equally distributed by sex and age groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Regression analysis was used to relate data on indoor heating and temperatures, the amount of clothing worn, the amount of physical activity, and shivering while outside, to outdoor temperature; results were compared with mortality patterns for ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and mortality from all causes. RESULTS: As mean daily temperatures fell to 0 degree C the amount of clothing worn outdoors increased, physical activity while outdoors became more continuous, and only 11 (6.6%) of the 167 people surveyed who went outdoors at temperatures above 0 degree C reported shivering. The mean temperature in living rooms in the evening remained above 21.9 degrees C. Mortality from ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and all causes did not change. As the temperature fell below 0 degree C the number of items of clothing worn plateaued at 16.0 and the number of layers at 3.7. With regression analysis, shivering outdoors was found to increase progressively to 34.6% (P
PubMed ID
9501713 View in PubMed
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