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Development and quality analysis of the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98003
Source
Work. 2010 Jan;35(2):153-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Petra Nilsson
Asa Bringsén
H Ingemar Andersson
Göran Ejlertsson
Author Affiliation
Centre of Public Health, School of Health and Society, Kristianstad University College, Kristianstad, Sweden. petra.nilsson@hkr.se
Source
Work. 2010 Jan;35(2):153-61
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Focus Groups
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Psychological
Personnel, Hospital
Principal Component Analysis
Psychological Tests
Sweden
Work - psychology
Workplace
Abstract
Instruments related to work are commonly illuminated from an ill-health perspective. The need for a concise and useable instrument in workplace health promotion governed the aim of this paper which is to present the development process and quality assessment of the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS). A survey, using a questionnaire based on established theories regarding work and health, and a focus group study were performed in hospital settings in 2005 and 2006 respectively. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to statistically develop a model, and focus group interviews were made to compare quantitative and qualitative results for convergence and corroboration. The PCA resulted in a six factor model of dimensions containing items regarding management, reorganization, internal work experience, pressure of time, autonomy and supportive working conditions. In the analysis of the focus group study three themes appeared and their underlying content was compared to, and matched, with the dimensions of the PCA. The reliability, shown by weighted kappa values, ranged from 0.36 to 0.71, and adequate Cronbach's Alpha values of the dimensions were all above 0.7. The study validity, indicated by discriminant validity, with correlation values that ranged from 0.10 to 0.39, in relation to the content validity appeared to be good when the theoretical content of the WEMS was compared to the content of similar instruments. The WEMS presents a multidimensional picture of work experience. Its theoretical base and the psychometric properties give support for applicability and offer a possibility to measure trends in the work experience over time in health care settings. One intention of the WEMS is to stimulate the ability of organizations and the employees themselves to take action on improving their work experience. The conciseness of the instrument is intended to increase its usability.
PubMed ID
20164610 View in PubMed
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Exploring workplace related health resources from a salutogenic perspective. Results from a focus group study among healthcare workers in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125040
Source
Work. 2012;42(3):403-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Asa Bringsén
H Ingemar Andersson
Göran Ejlertsson
Margareta Troein
Author Affiliation
School of Health and Society, Kristianstad University College, Kristianstad, Sweden. asa.bringsen@hkr.se
Source
Work. 2012;42(3):403-14
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Emergency Service, Hospital - manpower
Focus Groups
Health Promotion - standards
Health Resources
Humans
Interprofessional Relations
Interviews as Topic
Job Satisfaction
Nurses - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Nurses' Aides - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Occupational Diseases - prevention & control
Patient care team
Qualitative Research
Quality of Life - psychology
Questionnaires
Sense of Coherence
Stress, Psychological - prevention & control - psychology
Sweden
Task Performance and Analysis
Workplace
Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore healthcare workers' opinions on workplace related health resources relevant to promotion of their health.
16 registered nurses and 19 assistant nurses, from a medical emergency ward at a medium sized hospital in the south of Sweden, participated in the study.
Eight focus group interviews were conducted, the material was condensed and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to elicit and identify patterns in the expressed opinions of the participants.
The analysis yielded four themes that were labelled the reward, the team, the mission and the context. An explanatory model was constructed consisting of concentric circles, with the reward at the core. The qualitative analysis also revealed two divergent patterns; some of the participants associated positive health with stability while others referred to flexibility.
The results from this study have contributed to the body of knowledge regarding salutogenic health indicators in the field of work and health research in particular as well as in health promotion in general. The findings show that individuals can have diverse responses to any given work situation, and this should be taken into account before implementation of salutogenic health promotion programs.
PubMed ID
22523019 View in PubMed
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How to make a workplace health promotion questionnaire process applicable, meaningful and sustainable.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130576
Source
J Nurs Manag. 2011 Oct;19(7):906-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
Petra Nilsson
H I Andersson
Göran Ejlertsson
Kerstin Blomqvist
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden. petra.nilsson@hkr.se
Source
J Nurs Manag. 2011 Oct;19(7):906-14
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Consumer Participation
Health Promotion - methods
Health Services Research
Humans
Medical Staff, Hospital - psychology
Occupational Health
Questionnaires
Sweden
Workplace
Abstract
In workplace health promotion, a questionnaire could be of great use. Unfortunately, fatigue regarding answering questionnaires has recently become greater than before. An action research approach could be a possible way of increasing employee participation.
This study reports an attempt to explore key aspects for participation in, and commitment to, a workplace health promotion questionnaire process.
The study was conducted at two wards in a Swedish hospital. Data was collected during an action research process. Data were analysed with regard to a framework of questions.
The three key aspects for participation in, and commitment to, a workplace health promotion questionnaire process were: an applicable questionnaire, a meaningful questionnaire process and a continuous and sustainable questionnaire process. A structure is presented as practical advice to managers, describing how such a process could be established to be applicable, meaningful and sustainable.
This study has identified key aspects and prerequisites for questionnaire processes. The prerequisites - share decision-making, involve a core group and follow a structure - are discussed and proposed for managers and workgroups to consider in further workplace health promotion questionnaire processes.
The key aspects and prerequisites presented could provide a stimulating standpoint or advice, useful for planning and accomplishing workplace questionnaire processes.
PubMed ID
21988438 View in PubMed
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Predictors of positive health in disability pensioners: a population-based questionnaire study using Positive Odds Ratio.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71571
Source
BMC Public Health. 2002 Sep 11;2:20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-11-2002
Author
Göran Ejlertsson
Lena Edén
Ido Leden
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, S-291 88 Kristianstad, Sweden. goran.ejlertsson@hv.hkr.se
Source
BMC Public Health. 2002 Sep 11;2:20
Date
Sep-11-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Attitude to Health
Chronic Disease - psychology - rehabilitation
Disabled Persons - psychology - rehabilitation
Female
Health promotion
Health status
Humans
Insurance, Disability
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Diseases - psychology - rehabilitation
Odds Ratio
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retirement
Self Assessment (Psychology)
Sweden
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Determinants of ill-health have been studied far more than determinants of good and improving health. Health promotion measures are important even among individuals with chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to find predictors of positive subjective health among disability pensioners (DPs) with musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Two questionnaire surveys were performed among 352 DPs with musculoskeletal disorders. Two groups were defined: DPs with positive health and negative health, respectively. In consequence with the health perspective in this study the conception Positive Odds Ratio was defined and used in the logistic regression analyses instead of the commonly used odds ratio. RESULTS: Positive health was associated with age > or = 55 years, not being an immigrant, not having fibromyalgia as the main diagnosis for granting an early retirement, no regular use of analgesics, a high ADL capacity, a positive subjective health preceding the study period, and good quality of life. CONCLUSION: Positive odds ratio is a concept well adapted to theories of health promotion. It can be used in relation to positive outcomes instead of risks. Suggested health promotion and secondary prevention efforts among individuals with musculoskeletal disorders are 1) to avoid a disability pension for individuals
PubMed ID
12225618 View in PubMed
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Recovery, work-life balance and work experiences important to self-rated health: A questionnaire study on salutogenic work factors among Swedish primary health care employees.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295169
Source
Work. 2018; 59(1):155-163
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2018
Author
Lina Ejlertsson
Bodil Heijbel
Göran Ejlertsson
Ingemar Andersson
Author Affiliation
School of Health and Society, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
Source
Work. 2018; 59(1):155-163
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Health Personnel - psychology
Health status
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Primary Health Care - manpower
Self Report
Sense of Coherence
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Work-Life Balance - methods
Workplace - psychology
Abstract
There is a lack of information on positive work factors among health care workers.
To explore salutogenic work-related factors among primary health care employees.
Questionnaire to all employees (n?=?599) from different professions in public and private primary health care centers in one health care district in Sweden. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, recovery, leadership, social climate, reflection and work-life balance.
The response rate was 84%. A multivariable linear regression model, with SHIS as the dependent variable, showed three significant predictors. Recovery had the highest relationship to SHIS (ß=?0.34), followed by experience of work-life balance (ß=?0.25) and work experiences (ß=?0.20). Increased experience of recovery during working hours related to higher self-rated health independent of recovery outside work.
Individual experiences of work, work-life balance and, most importantly, recovery seem to be essential areas for health promotion. Recovery outside the workplace has been studied previously, but since recovery during work was shown to be of great importance in relation to higher self-rated health, more research is needed to explore different recovery strategies in the workplace.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29439377 View in PubMed
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Return to work still possible after several years as a disability pensioner due to musculoskeletal disorders: a population-based study after new legislation in Sweden permitting "resting disability pension".

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170728
Source
Work. 2006;26(2):147-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Lena Edén
Ingemar H Andersson
Göran Ejlertsson
Britt Inger Ekström
Yvonne Johansson
Ido Leden
Jan Petersson
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad, Sweden. lena.eden@hv.hkr.se
Source
Work. 2006;26(2):147-55
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Disabled Persons - legislation & jurisprudence
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Pensions
Questionnaires
Sweden
Abstract
Different strategies have been used to stimulate a return to work (RTW) among individuals suffering from long-term ailments. In Sweden a new law on "resting disability pension" permits disability pensioners to go back to work without jeopardising their benefits. In this study different variables related to RTW during 2000 by means of this legislation were identified among disability pensioners with musculoskeletal disorders. Individuals in the study group, when compared to a control group, had more often been disability pensioners for several years, had additional education, estimated their previous job to have been physically strenuous to a lesser degree, were more satisfied with the treatment at the social insurance office and had a more positive self-image. This study shows that it may be meaningful to continue/resume rehabilitation efforts and to try to motivate an individual suffering from musculoskeletal disorders to return to work even after several years as a disability pensioner.
PubMed ID
16477107 View in PubMed
Less detail

A salutogenic perspective could be of practical relevance for the prevention of smoking amongst pregnant women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63587
Source
Midwifery. 2002 Dec;18(4):323-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2002
Author
Agneta Abrahamsson
Göran Ejlertsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, S-291 88, Kristianstad, Sweden. agneta.abrahamsson@staff.hkr.se
Source
Midwifery. 2002 Dec;18(4):323-31
Date
Dec-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Communication
Female
Humans
Knowledge
Longitudinal Studies
Motivation
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Self Concept
Smoking - prevention & control - psychology
Smoking Cessation - methods - psychology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: to use empirical data to assess the theoretical relevance of using a salutogenic, instead of a pathogenic, perspective to prevent smoking during pregnancy. DESIGN: quantitative study, a questionnaire was completed during the first trimester of pregnancy and an interview was conducted after the baby was born. SETTING: a geographically defined area in the south-east of Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: all 395 women in the study area who were pregnant during the study period 1994-1995. FINDINGS: the women were categorised according to their smoking habits. A significant difference in the sense of coherence (SOC) score was shown between smoking and non-smoking women in indicators of bad health. Women who relapsed to smoking showed a lower level of SOC, particularly in the manageability component, than others. The SOC score was higher in the whole study group than in other comparable, non-pregnant populations. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: a salutogenic perspective could be used in antenatal care as a basis for encouraging pregnant women to stop smoking. This could enhance the SOC by making smoking more understandable for the woman, by discussing smoking as a way of coping, and by encouraging the woman's own capacity and motivation to stop smoking. Starting a dialogue about smoking from the woman's point of view could do this, with the midwife and the woman exploring together the woman's thoughts about the smoking problem.
PubMed ID
12473447 View in PubMed
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Snus user identity and addiction: a Swedish focus group study on adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119018
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):975
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Ingrid Edvardsson
Margareta Troein
Göran Ejlertsson
Lena Lendahls
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Family medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden. ingrid.edvardsson@ltkronoberg.se
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):975
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Attitude to Health
Female
Focus Groups
Humans
Male
Qualitative Research
Risk factors
Social Identification
Social Values
Sweden
Tobacco Use Disorder - psychology
Tobacco, Smokeless - utilization
Abstract
The teenage years are the years when adolescents seek their identity, and part of this involves experimenting with tobacco. The use of tobacco as such, and norms among their friends, is more important to the adolescents than the norms of parents when it comes to using tobacco or not. The aim was to explore the significance of using snus for adolescents, and attitudes to snus, as well as the reasons why they began using snus and what maintained and facilitated the use of snus.
Adolescents who use snus were interviewed in focus groups. The material was analysed using content analysis.
Four groups of boys and one group of girls were interviewed, a total of 27 students from the upper secondary vocational program. Three themes related to the students' opinions on and experiences of using snus were found: Circumstances pertaining to snus debut indicate what makes them start using snus. Upholding, which focuses on the problem of becoming addicted and development of identity, and approach, where the adolescents reflect on their snus habits in relation to those around them. A number of factors were described as relevant to behaviour and norm building for the development into becoming a snus user. Attitudes and actions from adults and friends as well as - for the boys - development of an identity as a man and a craftsman influenced behaviour.
The results showed that development of identity was of major importance when adolescents start using snus. The adolescents were initially unable to interpret the early symptoms of abstinence problems, but subsequently became well aware of being addicted. Once they were stuck in addiction and in the creation of an image and identity, it was difficult to stop using snus. These factors are important when considering interventions of normative changes and tobacco prevention in schools as well as among parents.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23148521 View in PubMed
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Work ethics and general work attitudes in adolescents are related to quality of life, sense of coherence and subjective health - a Swedish questionnaire study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature51797
Source
BMC Public Health. 2005;5:103
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Lars Axelsson
Ingemar Andersson
Anders Håkansson
Göran Ejlertsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, S-291 88 Kristianstad, Sweden. Lars.Axelsson@hv.hkr.se
Source
BMC Public Health. 2005;5:103
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Psychology
Attitude to Health
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Quality of Life - psychology
Questionnaires
Students - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Work - ethics
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Working life is an important arena in most people's lives, and the working line concept is important for the development of welfare in a society. For young people, the period before permanent establishment in working life has become longer during the last two decades. Knowledge about attitudes towards work can help us to understand young people's transition to the labour market. Adolescents are the future workforce, so it seems especially important to notice their attitudes towards work, including attitudes towards the welfare system. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse upper secondary school students' work attitudes, and to explore factors related to these attitudes. METHODS: The sample consisted of 606 upper secondary school students. They all received a questionnaire including questions about quality of life (QOL), sense of coherence (SOC), subjective health and attitudes towards work. The response rate was 91%. A factor analysis established two dimensions of work attitudes. Multivariate analyses were carried out by means of logistic regression models. RESULTS: Work ethics (WE) and general work attitudes (GWA) were found to be two separate dimensions of attitudes towards work. Concerning WE the picture was similar regardless of gender or study programme. Males in theoretical programmes appeared to have more unfavourable GWA than others. Multivariate analyses revealed that good QOL, high SOC and good health were significantly related to positive WE, and high SOC was positively related to GWA. Being female was positively connected to WE and GWA, while studying on a practical programme was positively related to GWA only. Among those who received good parental support, GWA seemed more favourable. CONCLUSION: Assuming that attitudes towards work are important to the working line concept, this study points out positive factors of importance for the future welfare of the society. Individual factors such as female gender, good QOL, high SOC and good health as well as support from both parents, positive experience of school and work contacts related positively to attitudes towards work. Further planning and supportive work have to take these factors into account.
PubMed ID
16212657 View in PubMed
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The Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS): a useful tool in workplace health promotion.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117200
Source
Work. 2013;45(3):379-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Petra Nilsson
H Ingemar Andersson
Göran Ejlertsson
Author Affiliation
Centre of Public Health, School of Health and Society, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Source
Work. 2013;45(3):379-87
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Health promotion
Hospitals
Humans
Middle Aged
Personnel, Hospital
Psychometrics
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Sweden
Workplace
Abstract
To present validity data for the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS), an instrument measuring multifaceted work experience from a salutogenic health resource perspective as a contrast to the more common pathogenic risk perspective, by exploring WEMS relationship to established measurements that are positively related to health and work. A salutogenic perspective focuses on finding conditions and resources in life, for example at work, that can enhance the individual's health and strength, instead of those causing illness and weakness.
This study was carried out in 2009 at a Swedish hospital with a web-based survey (WEMS) to 770 employees. Different occupational groups at the hospital participated. Additional questionnaires used at the same time were the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE), and three questions about self-rated health, general well-being, and quality of life.
Cronbach's Alpha of WEMS sub-indices were in the interval of 0.85-0.96. Convergent validity and discriminant validity of WEMS and its sub-indices were shown to be satisfying by correlations. In addition, WEMS demonstrated the ability to discriminate between groups. WEMS sub-indices discriminated even better between groups than the total index.
The WEMS proved to be a workplace health promotion questionnaire that was able to measure experiences of work from a salutogenic perspective. The WEMS has a potential of being a useful tool in workplace health promotion to enhance positive human capabilities and resources to improve work performance.
PubMed ID
23324702 View in PubMed
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10 records – page 1 of 1.