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Associations among 25-year trends in diet, cholesterol and BMI from 140,000 observations in men and women in Northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123566
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:40
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Ingegerd Johansson
Lena Maria Nilsson
Birgitta Stegmayr
Kurt Boman
Göran Hallmans
Anna Winkvist
Author Affiliation
Department of Odontology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden. ingegerd.johansson@odont.umu.se
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:40
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - trends
Body mass index
Cholesterol - blood
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet Surveys
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted - adverse effects
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects
Diet, Reducing - adverse effects - trends
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Mass Media - trends
Middle Aged
Patient Compliance - ethnology
Sex Characteristics
Sweden
Weight Gain
Abstract
In the 1970s, men in northern Sweden had among the highest prevalences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) worldwide. An intervention program combining population- and individual-oriented activities was initiated in 1985. Concurrently, collection of information on medical risk factors, lifestyle and anthropometry started. Today, these data make up one of the largest databases in the world on diet intake in a population-based sample, both in terms of sample size and follow-up period. The study examines trends in food and nutrient intake, serum cholesterol and body mass index (BMI) from 1986 to 2010 in northern Sweden.
Cross-sectional information on self-reported food and nutrient intake and measured body weight, height, and serum cholesterol were compiled for over 140,000 observations. Trends and trend breaks over the 25-year period were evaluated for energy-providing nutrients, foods contributing to fat intake, serum cholesterol and BMI.
Reported intake of fat exhibited two significant trend breaks in both sexes: a decrease between 1986 and 1992 and an increase from 2002 (women) or 2004 (men). A reverse trend was noted for carbohydrates, whereas protein intake remained unchanged during the 25-year period. Significant trend breaks in intake of foods contributing to total fat intake were seen. Reported intake of wine increased sharply for both sexes (more so for women) and export beer increased for men. BMI increased continuously for both sexes, whereas serum cholesterol levels decreased during 1986 - 2004, remained unchanged until 2007 and then began to rise. The increase in serum cholesterol coincided with the increase in fat intake, especially with intake of saturated fat and fats for spreading on bread and cooking.
Men and women in northern Sweden decreased their reported fat intake in the first 7 years (1986-1992) of an intervention program. After 2004 fat intake increased sharply for both genders, which coincided with introduction of a positive media support for low carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diet. The decrease and following increase in cholesterol levels occurred simultaneously with the time trends in food selection, whereas a constant increase in BMI remained unaltered. These changes in risk factors may have important effects on primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Notes
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PubMed ID
22686621 View in PubMed
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Circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261129
Source
Breast Cancer Res. 2013;15(1):R15
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Stephanie Scarmo
Yelena Afanasyeva
Per Lenner
Karen L Koenig
Ronald L Horst
Tess V Clendenen
Alan A Arslan
Yu Chen
Göran Hallmans
Eva Lundin
Sabina Rinaldi
Paolo Toniolo
Roy E Shore
Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte
Source
Breast Cancer Res. 2013;15(1):R15
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Breast Neoplasms - blood - epidemiology - pathology
Case-Control Studies
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Premenopause - blood
Risk factors
Sweden
Vitamin D - analogs & derivatives - blood
Abstract
Experimental evidence suggests a protective role for circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in breast cancer development, but the results of epidemiological studies have been inconsistent.
We conducted a case-control study nested within two prospective cohorts, the New York University Women's Health Study and the Northern Sweden Mammary Screening Cohort. Blood samples were collected at enrollment, and women were followed up for breast cancer ascertainment. In total, 1,585 incident breast cancer cases were individually-matched to 2,940 controls. Of these subjects, 678 cases and 1,208 controls contributed two repeat blood samples, at least one year apart. Circulating levels of 25(OH)D were measured, and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression.
No association was observed between circulating levels of 25(OH)D and overall breast cancer risk (multivariate-adjusted model OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.76-1.16 for the highest vs. lowest quintile, ptrend = 0.30). The temporal reliability of 25(OH)D measured in repeat blood samples was high (intraclass correlation coefficients for season-adjusted 25(OH)D > 0.70). An inverse association between 25(OH)D levels and breast cancer risk was observed among women who were = 45 years of age (ORQ5-Q1 = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.30-0.79, ptrend = 0.01) or premenopausal at enrollment (ORQ5-Q1 = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.48-0.92, ptrend = 0.03).
Circulating 25(OH)D levels were not associated with breast cancer risk overall, although we could not exclude the possibility of a protective effect in younger women. Recommendations regarding vitamin D supplementation should be based on considerations other than breast cancer prevention.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23442740 View in PubMed
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Longitudinal 10-year changes in dietary intake and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286527
Source
Nutr J. 2017 Mar 28;16(1):20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-28-2017
Author
Anna Winkvist
Sofia Klingberg
Lena Maria Nilsson
Maria Wennberg
Frida Renström
Göran Hallmans
Kurt Boman
Ingegerd Johansson
Source
Nutr J. 2017 Mar 28;16(1):20
Date
Mar-28-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cholesterol - blood
Exercise
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Healthy Diet
Humans
Life Style
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - epidemiology - prevention & control
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
Dietary risks today constitute the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally and in Sweden. An increasing number of people today consume highly processed foods high in saturated fat, refined sugar and salt and low in dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. It is important that dietary trends over time are monitored to predict changes in disease risk.
In total, 15,995 individuals with two visits 10 (±1) years apart in the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme 1996-2014 were included. Dietary intake was captured with a 64-item food frequency questionnaire. Percent changes in intake of dietary components, Healthy Diet Score and Dietary Inflammatory Index were calculated and related to body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and blood pressure at the second visit in multivariable regression analyses.
For both sexes, on group level, proportion of energy intake (E%) from carbohydrates and sucrose decreased (largest carbohydrate decrease among 40 year-olds) and E% protein and total fat as well as saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (highest protein increase among 30 year-olds and highest fat increase among 60 year-olds) over the 10-year period. Also, E% trans-fatty acids decreased. On individual basis, for both sexes decreases in intake of cholesterol and trans-fatty acids were associated with lower BMI and serum cholesterol at second visit (all P?
Notes
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PubMed ID
28351404 View in PubMed
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