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Active travel to school and cardiovascular fitness in Danish children and adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80341
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Oct;38(10):1724-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2006
Author
Cooper Ashley R
Wedderkopp Niels
Wang Han
Andersen Lars Bo
Froberg Karsten
Page Angie S
Author Affiliation
Department of Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Bristol, United Kingdom. ashley.cooper@bris.ac.uk
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Oct;38(10):1724-31
Date
Oct-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Bicycling - physiology
Cardiovascular System
Child
Denmark
Ergometry
Female
Humans
Male
Motor Activity - physiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Pilot Projects
Questionnaires
Respiration
School Health Services
Students
Walking - physiology
Abstract
PURPOSE: Active travel to school provides an opportunity for daily physical activity. Previous studies have shown that walking and cycling to school are associated with higher physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the way that children and adolescents travel to school is associated with level of cardiovascular fitness. METHODS: Participants were recruited via a proportional, two-stage cluster sample of schools (N = 25) in the region of Odense, Denmark as part of the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Nine hundred nineteen participants (529 children, age 9.7 +/- 0.5 yr; 390 adolescents, age 15.5 +/- 0.4 yr) completed a maximal cycle ergometer test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness (Wmax x kg(-1)). Mode of travel to school was investigated by questionnaire. Physical activity was measured in 531 participants using an accelerometer. Regression analyses with robust standard errors and adjustment for confounders (gender, age, body composition (skinfolds), pubertal status, and physical activity) and the cluster sampling procedure were used to compare fitness levels for different travel modes. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to assess the odds for belonging to quartiles of fitness. RESULTS: Children and adolescents who cycled to school were significantly more fit than those who walked or traveled by motorized transport and were nearly five times as likely (OR 4.8; 95% CI 2.8-8.4) to be in the top quartile of fitness. CONCLUSION: Cycling to school may contribute to higher cardiovascular fitness in young people.
PubMed ID
17019293 View in PubMed
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Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature94311
Source
BMC Public Health. 2009;9:322
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Nilsson Andreas
Andersen Lars Bo
Ommundsen Yngvar
Froberg Karsten
Sardinha Luis B
Piehl-Aulin Karin
Ekelund Ulf
Author Affiliation
School of Health and Medical Sciences, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden. andreas.nilsson@oru.se
Source
BMC Public Health. 2009;9:322
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Identifying leisure time activities performed before and after school that influence time in physical activity (PA) and/or time spent sedentary can provide useful information when designing interventions aimed to promote an active lifestyle in young people. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between mode of transportation to school, outdoor play after school, participation in exercise in clubs, and TV viewing with objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviour in children. METHODS: A total of 1327 nine- and 15-year-old children from three European countries (Norway, Estonia, Portugal) participated as part of the European Youth Heart Study. PA was measured during two weekdays and two weekend days using the MTI accelerometer, and average percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary were derived. Potential correlates were assessed by self-report. Independent associations between self-reported correlates with percent time in MVPA and percent time sedentary were analysed by general linear models, adjusted by age, gender, country, measurement period, monitored days and parental socio-economic status. RESULTS: In 9-year-olds, playing outdoors after school was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P
PubMed ID
19735565 View in PubMed
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Fitness, fatness and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal: the European Youth Heart Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86824
Source
Int J Pediatr Obes. 2008;3 Suppl 1:58-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Andersen Lars B
Sardinha Luis B
Froberg Karsten
Riddoch Chris J
Page Angie S
Anderssen Sigmund A
Author Affiliation
Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Int J Pediatr Obes. 2008;3 Suppl 1:58-66
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity - physiology
Adolescent
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - blood - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Cluster analysis
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Estonia - epidemiology
Exercise - physiology
Female
Humans
Lipids - blood
Male
Odds Ratio
Physical Fitness - physiology
Portugal - epidemiology
Predictive value of tests
Risk factors
Skinfold thickness
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Levels of overweight have increased and fitness has decreased in children. Potentially, these changes may be a threat to future health. Numerous studies have measured changes in body mass index (BMI), but few have assessed the independent effects of low fitness, overweight and physical inactivity on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-center study including 1 769 children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal. The main outcome was clustering of CVD risk factors. Independent variables were waist circumference, skinfolds, physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. RESULTS: Both waist circumference and skinfolds were associated with clustered CVD risk. Odds ratios for clustered CVD risk for the upper quartiles compared with the lowest quartile were 9.13 (95% CI: 5.78-14.43) and 11.62 (95% CI: 7.11-18.99) when systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, insulin resistance homeostasis assessment model (HOMA) score, cholesterol:HDL, and fitness were included in the score. When fitness was removed from the clustered risk variable, the association for fatness attenuated and after further adjustment for fitness, only the highest quartiles of the fatness parameters were significant. Fitness showed the same strength of association with the clustered risk score including systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HOMA score, and cholesterol:HDL with odds ratio for the upper quartile of 4.97 (95% CI: 3.20-7.73). Physical activity was associated with clustered risk even after adjustment for fitness and fatness with an odds ratio for the upper quartile of 1.81 (95% CI: 1.18-2.76). CONCLUSION: Physical activity, fitness, skinfold and waist circumference were all independently associated with clustered CVD risk.
PubMed ID
18278634 View in PubMed
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Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81368
Source
Lancet. 2006 Jul 22;368(9532):299-304
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-22-2006
Author
Andersen Lars Bo
Harro Maarike
Sardinha Luis B
Froberg Karsten
Ekelund Ulf
Brage Søren
Anderssen Sigmund Alfred
Author Affiliation
Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway. lars.bo.andersen@nih.no
Source
Lancet. 2006 Jul 22;368(9532):299-304
Date
Jul-22-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Blood pressure
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Europe
Exercise
Female
Humans
Male
Physical Fitness
Risk factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis develops from early childhood; physical activity could positively affect this process. This study's aim was to assess the associations of objectively measured physical activity with clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and derive guidelines on the basis of this analysis. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional study of 1732 randomly selected 9-year-old and 15-year-old school children from Denmark, Estonia, and Portugal. Risk factors included in the composite risk factor score (mean of Z scores) were systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin resistance, sum of four skinfolds, and aerobic fitness. Individuals with a risk score above 1 SD of the composite variable were defined as being at risk. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. FINDINGS: Odds ratios for having clustered risk for ascending quintiles of physical activity (counts per min; cpm) were 3.29 (95% CI 1.96-5.52), 3.13 (1.87-5.25), 2.51 (1.47-4.26), and 2.03 (1.18-3.50), respectively, compared with the most active quintile. The first to the third quintile of physical activity had a raised risk in all analyses. The mean time spent above 2000 cpm in the fourth quintile was 116 min per day in 9-year-old and 88 min per day in 15-year-old children. INTERPRETATION: Physical activity levels should be higher than the current international guidelines of at least 1 h per day of physical activity of at least moderate intensity to prevent clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Notes
Comment In: Lancet. 2006 Jul 22;368(9532):261-216860679
Comment In: Lancet. 2006 Oct 14;368(9544):1326; author reply 1326-717046459
Comment In: Lancet. 2006 Oct 14;368(9544):1326; author reply 1326-717046460
ReprintIn: Ugeskr Laeger. 2006 Nov 20;168(47):4101-317134609
PubMed ID
16860699 View in PubMed
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Prevalence and correlates of the metabolic syndrome in a population-based sample of European youth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90966
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jan;89(1):90-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2009
Author
Ekelund Ulf
Anderssen Sigmund
Andersen Lars Bo
Riddoch Chris J
Sardinha Luis B
Luan Jian'an
Froberg Karsten
Brage Soren
Author Affiliation
Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, UK. ue202@medschl.cam.ac.uk
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jan;89(1):90-6
Date
Jan-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Birth Weight - physiology
Body mass index
Breast Feeding
Child
Child Nutritional Physiology Phenomena - physiology
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Europe
Female
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Obesity - complications - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Physical Fitness - physiology
Prevalence
Public Health
Risk factors
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Until recently, there has been no unified definition of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the youth. Therefore, the prevalence of MetS and its association with potential correlates are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to quantify the prevalence, identify the correlates, and examine the independent associations between potential correlates with MetS. DESIGN: A population-based cohort study was conducted in 10- and 15-y-old youth from Estonia, Denmark, and Portugal (n = 3193). MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Correlates included maternal socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, and prevalent diabetes and maternally reported child's birth weight and duration of breastfeeding. Data on sexual maturity, objectively measured physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, self-reported sports participation, television viewing, and regular play were collected for the children. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS was 0.2% and 1.4% in 10- and 15-y-olds, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized odds ratio: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.75), physical activity (standardized odds ratio: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.88), and maternal BMI (standardized odds ratio: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.34) were all independently associated with MetS after adjustment for sex, age group, study location, birth weight, and sexual maturity. An increase in daily moderate-intensity physical activity by 10-20% was associated with a 33% lower risk of being categorized with MetS. CONCLUSIONS: High maternal BMI and low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity independently contribute to the MetS and may be targets for future interventions. Relatively small increases in physical activity may significantly reduce the risk of MetS in healthy children.
PubMed ID
19056570 View in PubMed
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[Prevention of obesity among children and adolescents--proposal for a strategy]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature77332
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2007 Jun 11;169(24):2314-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-11-2007
Author
Mølgaard Christian
Dela Flemming
Froberg Karsten
Heitmann Berit L
Holm Lotte
Holstein Bjørn E
Jørgensen Karina
Madsen Svend Aage
Richelsen Bjørn
Tetens Inge
Author Affiliation
Motions- og Ernaeringsrådet, Søborg. suzm@meraadet.dk
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2007 Jun 11;169(24):2314-6
Date
Jun-11-2007
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Denmark
Evidence-Based Medicine
Food Habits
Humans
Life Style
Obesity - prevention & control
Overweight
Abstract
The Danish Fitness and Nutrition Council has evaluated the basis for recommending strategies to prevent obesity among children and adolescents. There is limited evidence of a preventive effect from large population based interventions. It is possible, though, to change to a healthier lifestyle. Currently, many different Administrations conduct interventions against obesity, and it is suggested that an independent authority should be established whose primary aim is to reduce the prevalence of obesity and which will be responsible for the effort against obesity.
PubMed ID
17594847 View in PubMed
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Screen-viewing and the home TV environment: the European Youth Heart Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92356
Source
Prev Med. 2008 Nov;47(5):525-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2008
Author
Jago Russell
Page Angie
Froberg Karsten
Sardinha Luis B
Klasson-Heggebø Lena
Andersen Lars B
Author Affiliation
Department of Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS81TP, UK. russ.jago@bris.ac.uk
Source
Prev Med. 2008 Nov;47(5):525-9
Date
Nov-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child Behavior
Europe
Female
Health status
Housing
Humans
Life Style
Male
Obesity
Parent-Child Relations
Personal Autonomy
Television - utilization
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Examine if home environmental factors are associated with screen-viewing. METHODS: Data are for 2670, 3rd and 9th grade participants in Denmark, Portugal, Estonia and Norway collected between 1997 and 2000. Outcomes were spending >2 h after-school watching television (TV) and >1 h per day playing computer games. Child Autonomy and the home TV Environment were exposures. RESULTS: Each unit increase in Child Autonomy was associated with 9% increase in risk of watching more than 2 h of TV per day after school and a 19% increase in risk of spending more than an hour per day playing computer games. TV Environment was associated with a 31% per unit increase in risk of watching >2 h of TV after school and 11% increase in risk of spending >1 h playing computer games. CONCLUSIONS: A family environment in which after-school TV viewing is part of the home culture and homes where children have more autonomy over their own behavior are associated with an increased risk of watching >2 h of TV per day after school and spending more >1 h per day playing computer games. The home screen-viewing environment and Child Autonomy may be malleable targets for changing screen-viewing.
PubMed ID
18722400 View in PubMed
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Six-year change in youth physical activity and effect on fasting insulin and HOMA-IR.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91675
Source
Am J Prev Med. 2008 Dec;35(6):554-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Jago Russell
Wedderkopp Niels
Kristensen Peter L
Møller Niels C
Andersen Lars B
Cooper Ashley R
Froberg Karsten
Author Affiliation
Department of Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, England. Russ.Jago@bris.ac.uk
Source
Am J Prev Med. 2008 Dec;35(6):554-60
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Analysis of Variance
Blood Glucose - analysis
Body Composition - physiology
Body mass index
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Homeostasis
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance - physiology
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Motor Activity - physiology
Obesity - blood
Physical Fitness - physiology
Risk factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is a shortage of longitudinal data analyzing associations between physical activity and indicators of insulin resistance among children and adolescents after accounting for adiposity change. To guide future prevention efforts, data were used from the Danish arm of the European Youth Heart Study to examine these issues. METHODS: Participants were 384 students in Grade 9 (aged 15 years) from the municipality of Odense, Denmark, who participated in surveys in 1997 and 2003. Physical activity was monitored for at least 3 days by accelerometer, and mean counts per minute (CPM) and minutes >3000 CPM per day were obtained. Blood samples were collected, and levels of fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were obtained. Data were analyzed in 2008. RESULTS: Physical activity declined from 45 minutes >3000 CPM in 1997 to 35 minutes >3000 CPM in 2003. Longitudinal regression analyses showed that a change in minutes >3000 CPM was negatively associated with fasting insulin levels (z=-2.47, p=0.014) and HOMA-IR (z=-2.31, p=0.021) in 2003. Similar findings were found when CPM was used as the physical activity variable. Results demonstrated that a 6-year decline in physical activity was associated with higher insulin and HOMA-IR levels. CONCLUSIONS: The 6-year change in the volume of physical activity engaged in by adolescents aged 15 years was negatively associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Preventing an age-related decline in physical activity may be an effective means of preventing youth insulin resistance.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Prev Med. 2008 Dec;35(6):604-519000850
PubMed ID
18848414 View in PubMed
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TV viewing and physical activity are independently associated with metabolic risk in children: the European Youth Heart Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79293
Source
PLoS Med. 2006 Dec;3(12):e488
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Ekelund Ulf
Brage Søren
Froberg Karsten
Harro Maarike
Anderssen Sigmund A
Sardinha Luis B
Riddoch Chris
Andersen Lars Bo
Author Affiliation
Epidemiology Unit, Medical Research Council, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Ulf.Ekelund@mrc-epid.cam.ac.uk
Source
PLoS Med. 2006 Dec;3(12):e488
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Estonia
Female
Humans
Male
Motor Activity
Obesity - epidemiology
Portugal
Risk Management
Television
Time Factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: TV viewing has been linked to metabolic-risk factors in youth. However, it is unclear whether this association is independent of physical activity (PA) and obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We did a population-based, cross-sectional study in 9- to 10-y-old and 15- to 16-y-old boys and girls from three regions in Europe (n = 1,921). We examined the independent associations between TV viewing, PA measured by accelerometry, and metabolic-risk factors (body fatness, blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, inverted high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, glucose, and insulin levels). Clustered metabolic risk was expressed as a continuously distributed score calculated as the average of the standardized values of the six subcomponents. There was a positive association between TV viewing and adiposity (p = 0.021). However, after adjustment for PA, gender, age group, study location, sexual maturity, smoking status, birth weight, and parental socio-economic status, the association of TV viewing with clustered metabolic risk was no longer significant (p = 0.053). PA was independently and inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin (all p
Notes
Comment In: PLoS Med. 2006 Dec;3(12):e48117194185
PubMed ID
17194189 View in PubMed
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