The study was carried out in Dr. Sami Ulus Children's Hospital to investigate and to compare the incidence and findings of acute rheumatic fever patients (ARF) seen in the past 30 years. The medical records of 1,115 patients with ARF admitted to Dr. Sami Ulus Children's Hospital Department of Pediatric Cardiology during 1980-2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-one percent of those patients were admitted between 1980 and 1989, 44.6% between 1990 and 1999, and 34.2% between 2000 and 2009. The highest incidence was detected in the second decade with a rate of 60.0:100,000. Male/female ratio was 1:18. The age of patients ranged between 2 and 15 years. Carditis was detected in 64.7% of patients, arthritis in 59.1%, and chorea in 14.1%. Mitral regurgitation was the most common echocardiographic finding. Heart failure was detected in 13.8%. Recurrent attacks occurred in 8.1% of patients. The median follow-up was 6.8 years (range, 1.2-10.5 years). The prevalence of chronic rheumatic valvular disease was 58%. Mortality rate was 0.8%.
Although the incidence of ARF has decreased in the last decade, it still continues to be an important public health problem in Turkish pediatric population.
Pneumonia is an important cause of death in childhood, especially in the infancy period. Since the respiratory and cardiovascular systems cannot be thought of independently, it is important to detect cardiovascular changes during pneumonia. We prospectively studied 50 children aged 2-24 months admitted to the hospital because of pneumonia in order to evaluate their cardiovascular findings with noninvasive methods. Patients were classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria of pneumonia, and evaluated by obtaining complete blood counts, serum electrolytes, renal and liver function tests, blood gases, creatinine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB), chest X-ray, electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography at the admission and after clinical recovery. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was found to be high in 70% of patients and there was a correlation between the severity of the pneumonia and RVSP All patients had normal left ventricular dimensions and functions, but in 68% of them CK-MB was elevated. In these infants, T voltages in D1 derivation showed a significant rise with clinical recovery. Seven cases developed congestive heart failure, and three died. CK-MB was found to be high in all patients who died and in six of seven patients with congestive heart failure. Our findings suggest that myocarditis incidence in children with pneumonia may be higher than previously known. Since myocarditis can be a fatal disease, its detection is important by noninvasive techniques like ECG, echocardiography and cardiac enzyme measurements.
Departments of Pediatric Cardiology Radiology, Dr. Sami Ulus Pediatric Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Medical Faculty, Fatih University, Istanbul, Turkey.
Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly caused by a backward displacement of the conical artery of the truncus arteriosus. It is commonly associated with additional cardiovascular abnormalities. A 7-year-old girl was admitted to our clinic with the complaint of shortness of breath upon exertion. Chest radiography revealed a hypoplastic right lung. Absence of the right pulmonary artery with atrial septal defect and pulmonary hypertension was demonstrated by echocardiography, computed tomography, and cardiac catheterization. Bosentan is effectively used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Autonomic nervous system involvement in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was studied in 29 patients by analysis of heart rate variability and compared with a control group which consisted of 20 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Holter recordings for 24 hours were obtained, and all recordings were analyzed using time-domain parameters. The patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were found to have significantly lower values of standard deviation of all normal sinus intervals and triangular index when compared with the control group. Of 23 patients who had regular follow-up, 15 died in a period ranging from 1 to 13 months. Twelve of these patients had heart rate variability parameters lower than normal, but no significant difference was observed between the heart rate variability values of patients who survived or died. Also, there was no association between brain magnetic resonance imaging findings and heart rate variability indices. It is concluded that patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis have autonomic dysfunction; and this was thought to be mainly due to central involvement.
BACKGROUND: The arthritis of rheumatic fever is very responsive to treatment with salicylates, but there are many adverse reactions, especially hepatotoxicity, due to aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) therapy. These side-effects change the course and duration of rheumatic fever. Other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be equally effective, although no reports are available. METHODS: We studied 72 patients with rheumatic fever who were admitted to Dr Sami Ulus Children's Hospital between 1995 and 1999. Twenty patients with arthritis were treated with tolmetin (25 mg/kg per day; group I) and 52 patients with arthritis and/or mild carditis were put on aspirin therapy (75-100 mg/kg per day) for 4-6 weeks (group II). Arthritis had disappeared at the same time in both the aspirin and tolmetin groups (P = 0.675). RESULTS: The erythrocyte sedimentation rates of patients upon admission, at the first week and at the end of therapy were not different in the two groups (P > 0.05). No adverse effect of tolmetin therapy was observed, whereas side-effects of salicylate were observed in 19 patients (36.5%) in the aspirin group. Hepatotoxicity, gastric irritation and salicylism were found in 16, four and three patients, respectively. Renal toxicity and Reye syndrome were not demonstrated. Because of these side-effects of aspirin, therapy had to be stopped for 10-20 days and the duration of hospitalization in this group was lengthened unnecessarily. CONCLUSION: Tolmetin was safe and effective treatment for arthritic rheumatic fever patients without carditis. Tolmetin can be used particularly in patients who cannot tolerate aspirin.
Isolated left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a rare cardiomyopathy characterized by prominent trabeculations and deep intratrabecular recesses. In this study, we aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of children with ventricular non-compaction and determine the factors affecting prognosis. We retrospectively evaluated 29 children with LVNC followed at Dr. Sami Ulus Children Hospital Pediatric Cardiology Department from December 2004 to November 2009. There were 13 females (45%) and 16 males (55%) and the mean age at presentation was 4.8±4.6 years (one month-15 years). Although there was no statistical significance; early presentation age and high left ventricular end-diastolic diameter at the diagnosis were associated with poorer prognosis. Keywords: Heart failure; Non-compaction of the left ventricle; Children.