The Multitest CMI system consists of a disposable multiple puncture device that simultaneously applies seven standardized recall antigens for assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). The seven antigens included were toxoid from Clostridium tetani and Corynebacterium diphtheriae, tuberculin, plus antigens from streptococcus (group C), Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Proteus mirabilis. A population of 352 healthy Danish adults, aged between 17 and 90 years, was tested to determine the incidence and size of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. All but six healthy adults (98%) responded to one or more antigens, the median number of positive responses being four in males and three in females. The incidence of positive responses ranged from 91% for tuberculin to 11% for trichophyton. The number of positive responses declined with age, being somewhat faster in females than males. Six of the seven antigen response rates were significantly lower in the over 65-years-olds, the only exception being trichophyton, and for four of the seven antigens significantly lower in females compared to males. When correlated to age and sex no major differences were found with regard to the size of response to the seven antigens except that the tuberculin response was larger in males. A scoring system based on both number and size of positive responses revealed significant age and sex related differences. The median "score" in 17-65-year-old males and females were, respectively, 17 mm and 14 mm compared to 13 mm and 8 mm in those over 65 years old (P less than 0.001 for both comparisons).
BACKGROUND: Over the last few decades numerous regional and national registers have been established all over the world with the aim of improving survival in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). The Danish Polyposis Register was founded in 1971 and coordinates the screening and subsequent prophylactic colectomy of FAP patients. METHODS: The crude cumulative survival in 321 patients (205 probands and 116 call-up cases) with verified FAP was calculated in accordance with the life-table method. RESULTS: At the time of diagnosis of FAP only 2 of 116 (2%) had colorectal cancer versus 142 of 205 probands (69%). The 10-year cumulative survival was 94% (95% confidence limits, 89-99) in call-up cases compared with only 41% (34-49) in probands (p
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of duodenal carcinoma is much higher in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) than in the background population, and duodenal adenomatosis is found in most polyposis patients. AIMS: To describe the long term natural history of duodenal adenomatosis in FAP and evaluate if cancer prophylactic surveillance of the duodenum is indicated. METHODS: A prospective five nation study was carried out in the Nordic countries and the Netherlands. PATIENTS: A total of 368 patients were examined by gastroduodenoscopy at two year intervals during the period 1990-2001. RESULTS: At the first endoscopy, 238 (65%) patients had duodenal adenomas at a median age of 38 years. Median follow up was 7.6 years. The cumulative incidence of adenomatosis at age 70 years was 90% (95% confidence interval (CI) 79-100%), and of Spigelman stage IV 52% (95% CI 28-76%). The probability of an advanced Spigelman score increased during the study period (p
Based on the Danish Polyposis Register epidemiological calculations on familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) were carried out. The mean annual incidence was 1.85 x 10(-6) during the years 1971-1992, and the prevalence increasing to about 32 x 10(-6) at the end of 1992. FAP patients constituted a decreased percentage of all Danish patients with colorectal cancer (0.07% in 1980-1992). The completeness of registration was 97% in 1983-1992. The results are similar to Finnish estimates based on the same direct method of calculation, and as both series are based on almost complete national polyposis registration in well-registered populations we regard our results to be close to the true incidence rate.
The adult patients of somatic departments of a Copenhagen hospital were screened on a randomly selected day during a 14 day period by interviewers who examined them using a structured questionnaire regarding life-style. A patient was considered having an alcohol problem if one or more of the following criteria was fulfilled: (1) a self-reported daily alcohol consumption for at least 2 years of at least 60 g of ethanol in men and 36 g in women, (2) a Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) score of or above 5, (3) an alcohol-related discharge diagnosis. In total, 692 patients fulfilled the entry criteria, but 181 patients (26.2%) had to be excluded owing to predefined exclusion criteria (terminal illness, dementia, etc.), and 74 patients (14.5%) refused to participate. Among the 437 interviewed patients, 125 patients (28.6%; 95%-confidence limits 24.4-33.1%) fulfilled one or more of the diagnostic criteria for an alcohol problem. Only 14 patients (3.2%; 95%-confidence limits 1.8-5.3%) had an alcohol-related discharge diagnosis. The prevalence of patients with alcohol problems was significantly (P
Gastrointestinal surgery results in pain, profound endocrine metabolic changes and organ dysfunction, immunosuppression and decreased resistance to infection, fatigue and convalescence. The main pathogenetic mechanism is the surgical stress response, which may be reduced by minimal invasive (laparoscopic) surgical techniques and afferent neural and perhaps humoral mediator blockade. Subsequently, these techniques have been documented as reducing a variety of postoperative morbidity parameters. A unifying concept for control of the postoperative period is presented as a combined effort to enhance preoperative information, stress reduction and sufficient functional pain relief allowing early mobilization and oral nutrition. Preliminary data, in combination with laparoscopic surgery, suggest that this approach improves outcome significantly.
Total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) leaves patients at risk for rectal cancer. To assess this risk, the rectal cancer incidence in 297 patients with FAP undergoing IRA since 1951 was determined in the population-based registers of Denmark, Finland and Sweden. At the same time, detailed data on 50 patients with FAP and invasive rectal cancer were obtained from 11 international polyposis registries. The cumulative incidence of rectal cancer was 13.1 per cent at 25 years. The 5-year survival rate of patients with FAP developing rectal cancer was 71 per cent. Combining both studies, the risk of dying from rectal cancer after IRA was 2.0 per cent at 15 years of follow-up. These results justify IRA as primary treatment for most patients; restorative proctocolectomy is preferred for some subgroups. The high all-cause mortality rate observed in this relatively young population necessitates lifelong surveillance of patients with FAP.