As a consequence of contact with animals and animal products slaughterhouse workers might be at risk of infection with pathogenic microorganisms. This hypothesis has been supported by some earlier studies. In this study 217 slaughtermen and a control group of 113 greenhouse workers were investigated for the prevalence of serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Campylobacter jejuni (IgA and IgG), Yersinia enterocolitica types 3 and 9, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis types I, II, III, IV, and V, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, and Borrelia burgdorferi. No significant differences were found concerning either frequency of positive tests or magnitude of titers. The prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies was remarkably high in both groups.
The aim of this study was to assess the quality of a consecutive sample of occupational disease notifications submitted to the National Working Environment Service during 1994. The sample consisted of 860 notifications describing occupational diseases among persons working in companies situated in the county of Vejle. The data information e.g. company name and address, time of employment, harmful exposure and disease, were registered. An overall data quality assessment was performed including evaluation of the etiological connection between described occupational exposure and disease and potential preventive perspectives. The study showed that the notified informations in general were adequate, but doctors need to pay more attention to dose description of the harmful exposure. About 80% of the notifications presented an adequate connection between occupational exposure and disease. Only half of the notifications described preventable and recent (less than five years) harmful exposure. In conclusion, the Danish occupational disease notification system is in general of a high standard, and the National Working Environment Service could make more use of doctors' information provided in these notifications.
Living conditions for children and young people are of great interest. In previous investigations, differences in sickness among social groups have been found. WHO plans to reduce differences in health conditions among groups within the countries by at least 25%. In this article, attention is drawn to inequalities in health among children in Denmark. Parameters such as the risk of stillbirth, congenital malformations and death during the first year of life do not differ between social groups. Where the less harsh data are concerned, inequalities still exist between social groups, also among Danish children. In relation to the goals set by WHO, it is important to be aware that the existing ways of measurement may not be sufficient.
This study was performed to examine the cancer risk of Danish gardeners having been highly exposed to pesticides. We have followed a cohort of 4,015 employed gardeners (859 females and 3,156 males) from May 1975 until the end of 1984 with regard to cancer incidence. The observed incidence was compared with expected numbers calculated from national incidence rates. For all cancer sites combined, the standardized morbidity ratio (SMbR) was 104. Among male gardeners a significantly increased incidence was seen for soft tissue sarcoma (SMbR = 526, 95% confidence interval (CI): 109-1,538), an chronic lymphatic leukemia (SMbR = 275, 95% CI: 101-599). The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was twice that which was expected (SMbR = 200, 95% CI: 86-393). We suggest that some of the pesticides to which the gardeners have been exposed are capable of initiating or promoting the development of malignant neoplasms in tissues of mesenchymal origin.
Cast iron products are alloyed with small quantities of manganese, and foundry furnacemen are potentially exposed to manganese during tapping and handling of smelts. Manganese is a neurotoxic substance that accumulates in the central nervous system, where it may cause a neurological disorder that bears many similarities to Parkinson's disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the sources and levels of manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen by a combined measuring of blood-manganese (B-Mn) and manganese in ambient air (air-Mn).
During a period of 16 months, Air-Mn and B-Mn (denoted 'exposure values') were measured involving 24 furnacemen employed in three small size foundries and 21 scrap recycling workers from one plant. In the study period, 18 furnacemen had B-Mn measured 3-4 weeks after decreasing or stopping exposure (denoted 'post-exposure values'). The reference group for the B-Mn measurements consisted of 90 Danish male subjects.
Furnacemen who work in insufficiently ventilated smelting departments inhale, absorb, and retain significant amounts of manganese in their blood (approx. 2.5-5 microg/l above reference values) despite a generally low measured airborne level of manganese fumes (0.002-0.064 mg/m(3)). The 'exposure values' compared with 'post-exposure values' revealed a significant decrease in the B-Mn (on average 3.7 microg/l) level of the most exposed furnacemen. Two persons in our study were suspected of suffering clinically subacute manganese intoxication as both had B-Mn levels beyond the normal limit (25 and 29 microg/l, respectively). The potential problem disappeared completely after cessation of exposure, and the B-Mn levels decreased to 9.4 and 14.1 microg/l, respectively.
Risk assessment based on combined measurements of B-Mn and air-Mn seems to be valid in the interpretation of workers' hazard. Our study indicates that B-Mn may be a valuable parameter for estimating recent exposure (within 1-2 weeks). However, more knowledge is needed about the B-Mn level and its relation to neurological symptoms.
Increased tuberculosis risk associated with silicosis is well described. The present study defines the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis among 5424 nonsilicotic and 155 silicotic male foundry workers observed between 1967 and 1986. For the 18-year follow-up period, the following groups had statistically significant increased standard incidence rates (SIR) for pulmonary tuberculosis: silicotics, SIR = 1000 (95% CI = 272 to 2561, P less than .01); nonsilicotics employed at least 25 years, SIR = 353 (95% CI = 130 to 768, P less than .01); and for the entire cohort, SIR = 201 (95% CI = 125 to 397, P = .01). These results suggest that silica exposure may cause an increased pulmonary tuberculosis risk among nonsilicotic foundry workers.
The current study examines and compares the relationship between both macroeconomic and industry-specific business cycle indicators, and work-related injuries among construction workers in Denmark using emergency department (ED) injury data and also officially reported injuries to the Danish Working Environment Authority (WEA).
The correlations between ED and WEA injury data from the catchment area of Odense University Hospital during the period 1984-2010 were tested separately for variability and trend with two general macroeconomic indicators (gross domestic product and the Danish unemployment rate) and two construction industry-specific indicators (gross value added and the number of employees).
The results show that injury rates increase during economic booms and decrease during recessions. However, the regression coefficients were generally weak for both the ED (range 0.14-0.20) and WEA injuries (range 0.13-0.36). Furthermore, although there is some variability in the strength of the relationship of the different business cycle indicators, the relationships are generally not stronger for the WEA injuries than for the ED injuries, except for general unemployment. Similarly, no substantial differences in strength of relation between industry-specific and macroeconomic indicators were identified.
The study shows that there was no difference in the relationship between business cycle indicators, and WEA and ED injury data. This indicates that changes in reporting behaviour do not seem to play a major role in the relation between the business cycle and workplace injuries in a Danish context.