INTRODUCTION: Compared with controls, up to six years after their return, Danish Gulf War Veterans have a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported neuropsychological symptoms. Independent associations are found for concentration or memory problems, repeated fits of headache, balance disturbances or fits of dizziness, abnormal fatigue not caused by physical activity, and problems sleeping all night. We investigated whether psychosocial, physical, chemical or biological exposures were associated with these symptoms. METHODOLOGY: This study is a prevalence study using retrospective data on exposure. Some 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2 1990 until December 31 1997 were included; the control group comprised 257 subjects matched according to age, gender and profession. All participants underwent clinical and paraclinical examinations, and were interviewed by a physician based on a completed questionnaire. RESULTS: A clustering of three to five of the above symptoms were found in 21.4% of Gulf War Veterans vs. 6.2% in controls, p
The Copenhagen Male Study is a prospective, cardiovascular cohort study initiated in 1970 and consisting of 5249 employed men aged 40-59 years. A total of 4710 men, who had reported their smoking habits and were free of ischaemic heart disease, had their mortality recorded over a 17-year period: 585 men suffered a first incident of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and 248 cases were fatal. There was a strong social gradient in the risk of IHD (Kendall's Tau B = 0.12, P less than 0.001). Adjusting for age, blood pressure, physical activity, body mass index and alcohol consumption in a multiple logistic regression equation, men in the lowest social class had a relative risk (95% confidence interval) of IHD of 3.6 (2.5-5.3) compared to men in the highest social class. We determined whether differences in smoking habits could explain at least some of this large increase in risk. Adjustment for the above factors and also inclusion of the form of tobacco smoked, the amount of tobacco smoked and presence or absence of inhalation, had very little effect on the estimate: the relative risk was 3.5 (2.4-5.2). There was no social gradient in age at the start of smoking. According to smoking habits, comparing social class V with social class I, the relative risk was 7.7 (2.6-22.4) in cigarette smokers, 6.0 (1.1-32.1) in pipe smokers, 3.5 (1.7-7.1) in mixed smokers, 2.25 (0.4-12.9) in cheroot smokers, 3.8 (2.4-5.9) in all smokers, 1.95 (0.8-4.6) in ex-smokers, and 4.7 (1.01-22.2) in non-smokers. In the upper social classes, 50-75% of IHD events could be ascribed to smoking, and in the lowest classes only about 20%. We conclude that the substantial social inequalities in risk of ischaemic heart disease are not accounted for by differences in smoking habits.
AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Greenland Inuit according to the World Health Organization (WHO) definition and the definition suggested by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). METHODS: From 1999 to 2001, 917 adult Inuit participated in a health survey in Greenland. The examination included a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and blood pressure were measured. Plasma glucose, serum insulin, lipids and urine albumin/creatinine ratio were measured. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the WHO criteria 1999 and to the working definition suggested by the NCEP 2001. RESULTS: Using the WHO and the NCEP criteria, 20.7% and 17.9% of the participants had the metabolic syndrome, respectively. There was a moderate agreement between the two definitions, kappa = 0.56 (95% CI 0.51-0.61). Of those with the WHO metabolic syndrome, 37.9% did not have the NCEP syndrome, and 28.5% of those with the NCEP syndrome were not classified with the metabolic syndrome under the WHO criteria. Compared with the WHO syndrome, men with the NCEP syndrome had higher mean values of waist circumference, BMI and triglycerides, and lower mean values of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; among women, triglycerides were higher with the NCEP syndrome. CONCLUSION: The metabolic syndrome is common among Inuit using either the WHO definition or the proposed NCEP definition. The classification disagreement is considerable and a universally accepted definition is needed.
INTRODUCTION: Compared with controls, up to six years after their return, Danish Gulf War Veterans have a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms characterized by constant or occasional recurrent diarrhoea and frequent rumbling of the stomach within the preceding 12 months. The aim of this study was to clarify whether these symptoms could be attributed to physical, chemical or biological exposures. METHODOLOGY: Some 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2 1990 until December 31 1997 were included in a prevalence study using retrospective data on exposure; the control group comprised 257 subjects matched according to age, gender and profession. All participants underwent clinical and paraclinical examinations, and were interviewed by a physician based on a previously completed questionnaire. RESULTS: Among Gulf War Veterans the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms was 9.1% vs 1.7% among controls, p
BACKGROUND: Multiple symptoms have been reported in American Gulf War Veterans including headache, fatigue, impaired short-term memory, sleep disturbances, agitation, respiratory symptoms, muscle and joint pain, diseases of the skin, and intermittent fever. The Danish Gulf War Study was performed to clarify if a corresponding pattern existed among Danes having served in the Persian Gulf during and mainly after the conflict. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed during the period January 1997 to January 1998 which included 821 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2 1990 until December 31 1997. Of 686 (83.6%) subjects who participated in the study, 95% had been engaged in peace keeping operations after the war. A group consisting of randomly selected age- and gender matched controls, comprised 231 of 400 potential participants (57.7%). All participants underwent clinical and paraclinical examinations, and had an interview based on a previously completed questionnaire. RESULTS: Unspecific symptoms such as repeated fits of headache, fatigue, memory and concentration difficulties, sleep disturbances, agitation, dyspnea, diseases of the skin, and intermittent fever, were significantly more frequent among Danish Gulf War Veterans, p