Fishing regulations such as harvest restrictions are implemented to limit the exploitation of many fish stocks and ensure the sustainability of fisheries. In Norway, inland recreational fisheries are co-managed by the government and by local riparian rights holders, meaning that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar harvest restrictions differ somewhat among rivers. Data from Norwegian rivers from 2009 to 2013 were used to test for variation in the proportion of salmon released by anglers and the relative size of salmon harvested and released by anglers in rivers that had varying harvest restrictions in terms of quotas, size restrictions, and/or female harvest restrictions. The proportion of the catch released by anglers was higher in rivers where there were harvest restrictions (proportion released = 0.09-0.24) than in rivers with no such restrictions (proportion released = 0.01). On average, salmon released in rivers with size restrictions larger (average mass difference between harvested and released salmon = -1.25 kg) than those released in rivers without harvest restrictions (difference = 0.60 kg). The proportion of the catch released was larger in rivers with seasonal quotas (0.29) than in rivers with daily (0.07) or collective (i.e. total catch for the river; 0.06) quotas. Rivers with low daily (one salmon per angler per day) or seasonal (
Acoustic telemetry was utilized to track 49 brown trout (Salmo trutta) and 37 Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) first-time migrants of wild origin (post-smolts; mean LF : 169 and 172?mm) in a large fjord in northern Norway. The Salmo trutta were registered at sea for more than twice the time of the Salvelinus alpinus (medians of 54 and 22?days, respectively). Both species were mostly detected near river mouths (>80% of detections), and almost exclusively spent their time (>95%) within the interior 18 km of the fjord. They were surface oriented, with most detections at
Consistent individual differences in behavior have been demonstrated for many animals, but there are few studies of consequences of such repeated behavior in the wild. We tested consistency in migration timing to and from the sea among anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), using data from a study period of about 25 years, including more than 27,000 uniquely Carlin-tagged individuals that migrated to sea for feeding in the spring and returned to the river in late summer for up to 13 successive years. Consistency was found between individuals across time in timing of the seaward migration. Individuals migrating early during their first migration tended to migrate early the following years, and late migrants tended to migrate late. The same pattern was found also at ascent to freshwater. Hence, this study demonstrated that individual fish in nature can differ in behavior related to migration timing and that these differences can be consistent during their lifetime. Early migrants increased their mass more than late migrants and had a higher specific growth rate. Early migrating Arctic char, but not brown trout, experienced a longer life after the first migration to sea than late migrants. In both species, maturity occurred earlier in individuals that migrated early. For brown trout, but not for Arctic char, fecundity was significantly correlated to the timing of smolt migration. Hence, the repeatable individual variation in migration timing seemed to have ecological and fitness consequences in terms of growth, longevity, timing of maturity, and lifetime fecundity.