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Adipose tissue trans-fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105926
Source
Br J Nutr. 2014 Apr 14;111(7):1283-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-14-2014
Author
Camilla P Hansen
Tina L Berentzen
Jane N Østergaard
Christina C Dahm
Lars I Hellgren
Erik B Schmidt
Anne Tjønneland
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Kim Overvad
Marianne U Jakobsen
Author Affiliation
Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Bartholins Allé 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
Source
Br J Nutr. 2014 Apr 14;111(7):1283-91
Date
Apr-14-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue, White - metabolism
Biological Markers - metabolism
Biopsy, Needle
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Dietary Fats - adverse effects - metabolism
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Linoleic Acids, Conjugated - adverse effects - metabolism
Lost to Follow-Up
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - etiology - metabolism - pathology
Oleic Acids - adverse effects - metabolism
Questionnaires
Registries
Trans Fatty Acids - adverse effects - metabolism
Waist Circumference
Weight Gain
Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that the intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) plays a role in the development of obesity. The proportions of adipose tissue fatty acids not synthesised endogenously in humans, such as TFA, usually correlate well with the dietary intake. Hence, the use of these biomarkers may provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than that obtained with dietary questionnaires. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC). The relative content of fatty acids in adipose tissue biopsies from a random sample of 996 men and women aged 50-64 years drawn from a Danish cohort study was determined by GC. Baseline data on weight, WC and potential confounders were available together with information on weight and WC 5 years after enrolment. The exposure measures were total trans-octadecenoic acids (18:1t), 18:1 ?6-10t, vaccenic acid (18:1 ?11t) and rumenic acid (18:2 ?9c, 11t). Data were analysed using multiple regression with cubic spline modelling. The median proportion of total adipose tissue 18:1t was 1.52% (90% central range 0.98, 2.19) in men and 1.47% (1.01, 2.19) in women. No significant associations were observed between the proportions of total 18:1t, 18:1 ?6-10t, vaccenic acid or rumenic acid and changes in weight or WC. The present study suggests that the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue are not associated with subsequent changes in weight or WC within the exposure range observed in this population.
PubMed ID
24286469 View in PubMed
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The association between marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and survival after renal transplantation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271524
Source
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Jul 7;10(7):1246-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-7-2015
Author
Ivar A Eide
Trond Jenssen
Anders Hartmann
Lien M Diep
Dag O Dahle
Anna V Reisæter
Kristian S Bjerve
Jeppe H Christensen
Erik B Schmidt
My Svensson
Source
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Jul 7;10(7):1246-56
Date
Jul-7-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Animals
Cause of Death
Chromatography, Gas
Cohort Studies
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage - blood
Female
Fishes
Humans
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Kidney Transplantation - adverse effects - mortality
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Norway
Proportional Hazards Models
Protective factors
Registries
Risk factors
Seafood
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
Several studies have reported beneficial cardiovascular effects of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. To date, no large studies have investigated the potential benefits of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in recipients of renal transplants.
In this observational cohort study of 1990 Norwegian recipients of renal transplants transplanted between 1999 and 2011, associations between marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and mortality were investigated by stratified analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis adjusting for traditional and transplant-specific mortality risk factors. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma phospholipids were measured by gas chromatography in a stable phase 10 weeks after transplantation.
There were 406 deaths (20.4%) during a median follow-up period of 6.8 years. Mortality rates were lower in patients with high marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels (=7.95 weight percentage) compared with low levels (
Notes
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PubMed ID
26063768 View in PubMed
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Common Polymorphisms in the 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway and Risk of Incident Myocardial Infarction: A Danish Case-Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284742
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0167217
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Anders Gammelmark
Michael S Nielsen
Søren Lundbye-Christensen
Anne Tjønneland
Erik B Schmidt
Kim Overvad
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0167217
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase - genetics
Case-Control Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genotype
Haplotypes - genetics
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - etiology
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
The 5-lipoxygenase pathway (5-LOX) has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease and studies have suggested that genetic polymorphisms related to key enzymes in this pathway may confer risk of myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigated the association of pre-selected genetic polymorphisms in four candidate genes of 5-LOX (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase and its activating protein (ALOX-5 and FLAP), leukotriene A4 hydroxylase (LTA4-H) and leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4-S)) with incident MI.
In a Danish cohort including 57,053 participants, aged 50-64 at enrolment and recruited from 1993-97, we conducted a case-cohort study including cases with incident MI and a randomly selected sub cohort of 3,000 participants. Cases were identified from national registries through July 2013. A total of 22 SNPs were selected and genotyped using the commercially available KASP? assay. A tandem-repeat polymorphism, located in the ALOX-5 gene, was genotyped by multi-titre plate sequencing. Haplotypes were inferred using PHASE 2.1.
During a median follow-up of 17.0 years we identified 3,089 cases of incident MI. In FLAP, two SNPs were negatively associated with incident MI (rs9551963 & rs17222842) while one SNP (rs2247570) located in LTA4-H, was associated with higher risk of MI when comparing subjects with two copies of the variant allele to homozygotes for the wild type. However, only rs17222842 remained significantly associated with MI after correcting for multiple testing. Furthermore, the promoter polymorphism rs59439148 was associated with risk of MI in men. For male carriers of two variant alleles we found a hazard ratio of 1.63 (95% CI: 1.06;2.52) compared to homozygotes for the wild type. Previously described haplotypes (Hap-A -B, -E and -K) were not associated with MI in our population.
In conclusion, some common polymorphisms in the 5-lipoxygenase pathway were modestly associated with incident MI, suggesting a potential role for this pathway in the development of cardiovascular disease.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27893808 View in PubMed
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Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of a-linolenic acid and risk of myocardial infarction: a Danish cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282327
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jul;104(1):41-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2016
Author
Christian S Bork
Marianne U Jakobsen
Søren Lundbye-Christensen
Anne Tjønneland
Erik B Schmidt
Kim Overvad
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jul;104(1):41-8
Date
Jul-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Denmark
Diet
Diet Surveys
Energy intake
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - metabolism - prevention & control
Prospective Studies
alpha-Linolenic Acid - administration & dosage - metabolism - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Abstract
Intake of the plant-derived ?-3 (n-3) fatty acid a-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3; n-3) may reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but the results of previous studies have been inconsistent.
We aimed to investigate the association between dietary intake of ALA, adipose tissue content of ALA, and risk of incident myocardial infarction (MI).
A total of 57,053 participants, aged 50-64 y, were enrolled in the prospective Danish cohort study Diet, Cancer and Health between 1993 and 1997. Dietary intake of ALA was assessed with the use of a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire in the full cohort, whereas the adipose tissue content of ALA was determined with the use of gas chromatography in all incident MI cases and in a random sex-stratified sample of the total cohort (n = 3500).
During a median of 17 y of follow-up, we identified 2177 male and 912 female cases of MI. After appropriate exclusions, we included 2124 men and 854 women for analyses of dietary intake of ALA, whereas 1994 men and 770 women were included in the analysis of the adipose tissue content of ALA. In multivariate analyses that were conducted with the use of restricted cubic splines and adjusted for established CHD risk factors, weak positive associations in men and weak U-shaped associations in women were shown between both dietary intake and the adipose tissue content of ALA and risk of MI, but these associations were not statistically significant. Additional adjustments for dietary factors did not influence the observed associations numerically.
This study suggests that ALA has no appreciable association with risk of incident MI in either men or women.
PubMed ID
27169831 View in PubMed
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Dietary intake of total marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid and the risk of acute coronary syndrome - a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98842
Source
Br J Nutr. 2010 Feb;103(4):602-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Albert M Joensen
Erik B Schmidt
Claus Dethlefsen
Søren P Johnsen
Anne Tjønneland
Lars H Rasmussen
Kim Overvad
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark. albert.marni.joensen@rn.dk
Source
Br J Nutr. 2010 Feb;103(4):602-7
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Coronary Syndrome - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Diet Surveys
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Docosahexaenoic Acids - administration & dosage
Eicosapentaenoic Acid - administration & dosage
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - administration & dosage
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Reference Values
Risk factors
Seafood
Sex Factors
Abstract
Dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFA has been negatively associated with the risk of CHD among subjects with known CHD, whereas an effect in healthy subjects is less documented. We assessed the hypothesis that dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFA is negatively associated with the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in healthy subjects. In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study, 57 053 participants were enrolled. Dietary intake of total n-3 PUFA, including EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA, was assessed. During a mean follow-up period of 7.6 years, we identified all cases (n 1150) from this cohort with an incident ACS diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Registry or the Cause of Death Registry. Diagnoses were verified through medical record review. In Cox proportional hazard models, we adjusted for established risk factors for CHD. Men in the four highest quintiles of n-3 PUFA intake (>0.39 g n-3 PUFA per d) had a lower incidence of ACS compared with men in the lowest quintile. The hazard ratio was 0.83 (95 % CI 0.67, 1.03) when we compared men in the second lowest and lowest quintile of n-3 PUFA intake. Higher intake of n-3 PUFA did not strengthen this association. Associations for EPA, DPA and DHA were all negative, but less consistent. No convincing associations were found among women. In conclusion, we found borderline significant negative associations between the intake of marine n-3 PUFA and ACS among healthy men.
PubMed ID
19825219 View in PubMed
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Fish intake and acute coronary syndrome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148541
Source
Eur Heart J. 2010 Jan;31(1):29-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Lone J Bjerregaard
Albert M Joensen
Claus Dethlefsen
Majken K Jensen
Søren P Johnsen
Anne Tjønneland
Lars H Rasmussen
Kim Overvad
Erik B Schmidt
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Sdr Skovvej 15, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark. ljb@rn.dk
Source
Eur Heart J. 2010 Jan;31(1):29-34
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Coronary Syndrome - mortality
Animals
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage
Female
Fishes
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Seafood - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Shellfish - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To study the effect of fish consumption on the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in healthy subjects.
This Danish follow-up study included 57,053 men and women between 50 and 64 years. Intake of lean and fatty fish was estimated from a detailed and validated food frequency questionnaire. Potential cases of ACS were identified through nationwide medical databases. A total of 1122 cases of ACS were verified during a mean follow-up period of 7.6 years. Among men, intake of fatty fish was associated with a lower risk of ACS. For men in the highest quintile of fish intake compared with the lowest quintile, the hazard ratio was 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.85). The inverse association was observed for intakes >6 g of fatty fish per day with no obvious additional benefit observed for higher intakes. Intake of lean fish was not associated with ACS. There were few cases of ACS and results were not consistent in women.
In conclusion, a modest intake of fatty fish was associated with a lower risk of ACS in middle-aged men, whereas no consistent associations were observed among women.
Notes
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 2010 Jan;31(1):15-619933284
PubMed ID
19755403 View in PubMed
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Fish oil supplementation during late pregnancy does not influence plasma lipids or lipoprotein levels in young adult offspring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131816
Source
Lipids. 2011 Dec;46(12):1091-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Dorte Rytter
Erik B Schmidt
Bodil H Bech
Jeppe H Christensen
Tine B Henriksen
Sjurdur F Olsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Denmark. dr@soci.au.dk
Source
Lipids. 2011 Dec;46(12):1091-9
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Adult Children
Apolipoprotein A-I - blood
Apolipoproteins B - blood
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Denmark
Dietary Supplements
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage - blood
Female
Fish Oils - administration & dosage - blood
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lipoproteins, VLDL - blood
Male
Plant Oils - administration & dosage - metabolism
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, Third - blood - drug effects
Triglycerides - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
Nutritional influences on cardiovascular disease operate throughout life. Studies in both experimental animals and humans have suggested that changes in the peri- and early post-natal nutrition can affect the development of the various components of the metabolic syndrome in adult life. This has lead to the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy may have a beneficial effect on lipid profile in the offspring. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplementation with n-3 fatty acids during the third trimester of pregnancy on lipids and lipoproteins in the 19-year-old offspring. The study was based on the follow-up of a randomized controlled trial from 1990 where 533 pregnant women were randomized to fish oil (n?=?266), olive oil (n?=?136) or no oil (n?=?131). In 2009, the offspring were invited to a physical examination including blood sampling. A total of 243 of the offspring participated. Lipid values did not differ between the fish oil and olive oil groups. The relative adjusted difference (95% confidence intervals) in lipid concentrations was -3% (-11; 7) for LDL cholesterol, 3% (-3; 10) for HDL cholesterol, -1% (-6; 5) for total cholesterol,-4% (-16; 10) for TAG concentrations, 2%(-2; 7) for apolipoprotein A1, -1% (-9; 7) for apolipoprotein B and 3% (-7; 15) in relative abundance of small dense LDL. In conclusion, there was no effect of fish oil supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy on offspring plasma lipids and lipoproteins in adolescence.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21874272 View in PubMed
Less detail

Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of acute coronary syndrome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99436
Source
Br J Nutr. 2010 Jul;104(2):248-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Louise Hansen
Lars O Dragsted
Anja Olsen
Jane Christensen
Anne Tjønneland
Erik B Schmidt
Kim Overvad
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Society, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Strandboulevarden 49, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. louhan@cancer.dk
Source
Br J Nutr. 2010 Jul;104(2):248-55
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Coronary Syndrome - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet
Female
Fruit
Humans
Male
Malus
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Vegetables
Abstract
Prospective epidemiological studies have reported that a higher fruit and vegetable intake is associated with a lower risk of CHD. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between fruit and vegetable consumption, in particular the subgroupings citrus fruits, apples and cruciferous vegetables, and the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). During a median follow-up of 7.7 years, 1075 incident ACS cases were identified among 53 383 men and women, aged 50-64 years at recruitment into the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study in 1993-7. Fruit and vegetable intake was estimated from a validated FFQ, and ACS incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Overall, a tendency towards a lower risk of ACS was observed for both men and women with higher fruit and vegetable consumption. For men, we found an inverse association for apple intake (IRR per 25 g/d: 0.97; 95 % CI 0.94, 0.99). This association was also seen among women, albeit borderline significant. However, a higher risk was seen among women with higher fruit juice intake (IRR per 25 g/d: 1.04; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.08). The present results provide some support for previously observed inverse associations between fresh fruit intake, particularly apples, and ACS risk.
PubMed ID
20178672 View in PubMed
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Greenlandic Inuit show genetic signatures of diet and climate adaptation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266428
Source
Science. 2015 Sep 18;349(6254):1343-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-18-2015
Author
Matteo Fumagalli
Ida Moltke
Niels Grarup
Fernando Racimo
Peter Bjerregaard
Marit E Jørgensen
Thorfinn S Korneliussen
Pascale Gerbault
Line Skotte
Allan Linneberg
Cramer Christensen
Ivan Brandslund
Torben Jørgensen
Emilia Huerta-Sánchez
Erik B Schmidt
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Anders Albrechtsen
Rasmus Nielsen
Source
Science. 2015 Sep 18;349(6254):1343-7
Date
Sep-18-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The indigenous people of Greenland, the Inuit, have lived for a long time in the extreme conditions of the Arctic, including low annual temperatures, and with a specialized diet rich in protein and fatty acids, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). A scan of Inuit genomes for signatures of adaptation revealed signals at several loci, with the strongest signal located in a cluster of fatty acid desaturases that determine PUFA levels. The selected alleles are associated with multiple metabolic and anthropometric phenotypes and have large effect sizes for weight and height, with the effect on height replicated in Europeans. By analyzing membrane lipids, we found that the selected alleles modulate fatty acid composition, which may affect the regulation of growth hormones. Thus, the Inuit have genetic and physiological adaptations to a diet rich in PUFAs.
Notes
Comment In: Science. 2015 Sep 18;349(6254):1282-326383935
PubMed ID
26383953 View in PubMed
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Intake of carbohydrates compared with intake of saturated fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: importance of the glycemic index.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97445
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun;91(6):1764-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Marianne U Jakobsen
Claus Dethlefsen
Albert M Joensen
Jakob Stegger
Anne Tjønneland
Erik B Schmidt
Kim Overvad
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Epidemiology Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark. muj@dce.au.dk
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun;91(6):1764-8
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Energy Intake - physiology
Female
Glycemic Index - physiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that replacing saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with carbohydrates is modestly associated with a higher risk of ischemic heart disease, whereas replacing SFAs with polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease. The effect of carbohydrates, however, may depend on the type consumed. OBJECTIVES: By using substitution models, we aimed to investigate the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) associated with a higher energy intake from carbohydrates and a concomitant lower energy intake from SFAs. Carbohydrates with different glycemic index (GI) values were also investigated. DESIGN: Our prospective cohort study included 53,644 women and men free of MI at baseline. RESULTS: During a median of 12 y of follow-up, 1943 incident MI cases occurred. There was a nonsignificant inverse association between substitution of carbohydrates with low-GI values for SFAs and risk of MI [hazard ratio (HR) for MI per 5% increment of energy intake from carbohydrates: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.07). In contrast, there was a statistically significant positive association between substitution of carbohydrates with high-GI values for SFAs and risk of MI (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.64). There was no association for carbohydrates with medium-GI values (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.21). No effect modification by sex was observed. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that replacing SFAs with carbohydrates with low-GI values is associated with a lower risk of MI, whereas replacing SFAs with carbohydrates with high-GI values is associated with a higher risk of MI.
Notes
RefSource: Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun;91(6):1541-2
PubMed ID
20375186 View in PubMed
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