BACKGROUND: Successfully transferring the findings of expensive and tightly controlled programmes of intensive lifestyle modification to the primary care setting is necessary if such knowledge is to be of clinical utility. The objective of this study was to test whether intensive lifestyle modification, shown previously in tightly-controlled clinical trials to be efficacious for diabetes risk-reduction among high-risk individuals, can reduce cardiovascular risk factor levels in the primary care setting. METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Swedish BjÃ¶rknÃ¤s study was a randomized controlled trial conducted from 2003 to 2006 with follow-up on cardiovascular risk factors at 3, 12, 24 and 36 months. A total of 151 middle-aged men and women at moderate- to high-risk of cardiovascular disease from northern Sweden were randomly assigned to either an intensive lifestyle intervention (n = 75) or control (n = 76) group. The intervention was based broadly on the protocol of the Diabetes Prevention Program. The three-month intervention period was administered in the primary care setting and consisted of supervised exercise sessions and diet counselling, followed by regular group meetings during three years. The control group was given general advice about diet and exercise and received standard clinical care. Outcomes were changes in anthropometrics, aerobic fitness, self-reported physical activity, blood pressure, and metabolic traits. At 36 months post-randomisation, intensive lifestyle modification reduced waist circumference (-2.2 cm: p = 0.001), waist-hip ratio (-0.02: p
The objective of this study was to determine whether a first myocardial infarction leads to increased plasma levels of hemostatic factors and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and whether the association between theses biomarkers and myocardial infarction was greater at follow-up compared with baseline. Of more than 36,000 persons screened in northern Sweden, 78 developed a first myocardial infarction (on average 18 months after sampling) in a population-based, prospective, nested patient-referent study. Fifty of these had participated in a follow-up health survey (on average 8 and a half years between surveys) and were sex-matched and age-matched with 56 referents. The mean increases in hs-CRP, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mass, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mass, and tPA/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex concentration and von Willebrand factor among patients and referents were comparable during follow-up. Conditional logistic regression indicated that hs-CRP was not significantly associated with first myocardial infarction in a univariate analysis, whereas high plasma levels of tPA and creatinine were significantly associated with outcome at baseline and follow-up. tPA/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex was not superior to tPA as a risk marker in this study. A first myocardial infarction did not in this study induce significantly different changes in plasma levels of hs-CRP and hemostatic factors among patients compared with referents during follow-up.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare definitions of metabolic syndrome with regard to their prediction of stroke and coronary heart disease incidence. METHODS: The study comprises 4041 men and 3812 women of 6 Finnish and Swedish cohorts aged 25 to 74 years at baseline. Hazard ratio was estimated applying Cox regression analyses adjusting for cohort, cholesterol, and smoking and using age as a time scale. A paired homogeneity test was performed to compare the differences. RESULTS: A total of 113 (47) ischemic and 43 (15) hemorrhagic stroke and 235 (50) coronary heart disease events were accumulated in men (women). Hazard ratios (95% CIs) for ischemic stroke in men were 1.59 (1.09 to 2.32), 1.52 (1.01 to 2.28), 1.16 (0.77 to 1.74), and 1.27 (0.87 to 1.86), respectively, for the World Health Organization, National Cholesterol Education Program, National Cholesterol Education Program revised, and the International Diabetes Federation definitions of metabolic syndrome, and in women 2.20 (1.15 to 4.19), 2.68 (1.47 to 4.87), 2.31 (1.27 to 4.20), and 1.91 (1.05 to 3.49), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios (95% CIs) for coronary heart disease were 1.57 (1.21 to 2.04), 1.51 (1.15 to 1.99), 1.63 (1.25 to 2.13), and 1.46 (1.12 to 1.89) in men and 1.32 (0.69 to 2.51), 1.54 (0.85 to 2.79), 1.81 (1.02 to 3.21), and 2.47 (1.37 to 4.45) in women. None of the definitions of metabolic syndrome predicted hemorrhagic stroke. There was no difference between definitions of metabolic syndrome and between a full definition and its individual components. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome as well as its individual components predicted the incidence of the ischemic stroke and the coronary heart disease equally well and should be treated equally as well.
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in and around the CTLA-4 gene have previously been associated to T1D and AITD in several populations. One such single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), CT60, has been reported to affect the expression level ratio of the soluble (sCTLA-4) to full length CTLA-4 (flCTLA-4) isoforms. The aims of our study were to replicate the association previously published by Ueda et al. of polymorphisms in the CTLA-4 region to T1D and AITD and to determine whether the CT60 polymorphism affects the expression level ratio of sCTLA-4/flCTLA-4 in our population. METHODS: Three SNPs were genotyped in 253 cases (104 AITD cases and 149 T1D cases) and 865 ethnically matched controls. Blood from 23 healthy individuals was used to quantify mRNA expression of CTLA-4 isoforms in CD4+ cells using real-time PCR. Serum from 102 cases and 59 healthy individuals was used to determine the level of sCTLA-4 protein. RESULTS: Here we show association of the MH30, CT60 and JO31 polymorphisms to T1D and AITD in northern Sweden. We also observed a higher frequency of the CT60 disease susceptible allele in our controls compared to the British, Italian and Dutch populations, which might contribute to the high frequency of T1D in Sweden. In contrast to previously published findings, however, we were unable to find differences in the sCTLA-4/flCTLA-4 expression ratio based on the CT60 genotype in 23 healthy volunteers, also from northern Sweden. Analysis of sCTLA-4 protein levels in serum showed no correlation between sCTLA-4 protein levels and disease status or CT60 genotype. CONCLUSION: Association was found between T1D/AITD and all three polymorphisms investigated. However, in contrast to previous investigations, sCTLA-4 RNA and protein expression levels did not differ based on CT60 genotype. Our results do not rule out the CT60 SNP as an important polymorphism in the development of T1D or AITD, but suggest that further investigations are necessary to elucidate the effect of the CTLA-4 region on the development of T1D and AITD.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several studies indicate a declining case-fatality and mortality in stroke. Little is known about time trends in stroke for subjects with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to compare time trends in incidence, case-fatality and mortality for stroke patients with or without diabetes. METHODS: This study was based on the Northern Sweden MONICA Project Stroke registry during 1985 to 2003. 15 382 patients, aged 35 to 74 years, were included in the study. 11 605 had a first-ever stroke and 3777 had a recurrent stroke. In both men and women previously diagnosed diabetes was found in 22.8%. RESULTS: The incidence of stroke was 5 and 8 times higher in diabetic subjects than in nondiabetics, in men and women, respectively. Incidence of first-ever stroke decreased for nondiabetic men, probability value
BACKGROUND: The registration of non-fatal and fatal MI events initiated 1985 in the WHO MONICA project has been ongoing in northern Sweden since the end of the WHO project in 1995. The purpose of the present study was to analyze gender differences in first and recurrent events, case fatality and mortality in myocardial infarction (MI) in Northern Sweden during the 20-year period 1985 - 2004. METHODS: Diagnosed MI events in subjects aged 25-64 years in the Counties of Norrbotten and Västerbotten were validated according to the MONICA protocol. The total number of events registered up to January 1, 2005 was 11,763: 9,387 in men and 2,376 in women. RESULTS: The proportion of male/female events has decreased from 5.5:1 to 3:1. For males the reductions were 30% and 70% for first and recurrent MI, respectively, and for women 0% and 40% in the 55-64 year group. For both sexes a 50% reduction in 28-day case fatality was seen in the 25-64 year-group. Mortality was reduced by 69% and 45% in men and women, respectively. CONCLUSION: First and recurrent events of myocardial infarction was markedly reduced in men over the 20-year observation period, but for women the reduction was seen only for recurrent infarctions. Case fatality, on the other hand, was markedly reduced for both sexes. As a result of the positive effects on incidence and case fatality a substantial reduction was seen in total mortality, most pronounced for men.
BACKGROUND: To study the diabetes related CVD risk between men and women of different ages. METHODS: Hazards ratios (HRs) (95%CI) for acute CHD and ischaemic stroke events were estimated based on data of Finnish and Swedish cohorts of 5111 women and 4167 men. RESULTS: 182 (3.6%) women and 348 (8.4%) men had CHD and 129 (2.5%) women and 137 (3.3%) men ischaemic stroke events. The multivariate adjusted HRs for acute CHD at age groups of 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 years were 1.00 (1.94), 1.78 (4.23), 3.75 (8.40) in women (men) without diabetes and 4.35 (5.40), 5.49 (9.54) and 8.84 (13.76) in women (men) with diabetes. The corresponding HRs for ischaemic stroke were 1.00 (1.26), 2.48 (2.83) and 5.17 (5.11) in women (men) without diabetes and 4.14 (4.91), 3.32 (6.75) and 13.91 (18.06) in women (men) with diabetes, respectively. CONCLUSION: CHD risk was higher in men than in women but difference reduced in diabetic population. Diabetes, however, increased stroke risk more in men than in women.