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Autoantibodies Toward the Angiotensin 2 Type 1 Receptor: A Novel Autoantibody in Alzheimer's Disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274439
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;47(2):523-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Lasse M Giil
Einar K Kristoffersen
Christian A Vedeler
Dag Aarsland
Jan Erik Nordrehaug
Bengt Winblad
Angel Cedazo-Minguez
Anders Lund
Tove Ragna Reksten
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;47(2):523-9
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - blood - cerebrospinal fluid - epidemiology - immunology
Autoantibodies - blood - immunology
Biomarkers - blood - cerebrospinal fluid
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Status Schedule
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2 - immunology
Abstract
Autoantibodies with agonist function are described in cardiovascular disorders. Since vascular risk factors are associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), we investigated a potential association between antibodies to the angiotensin 2 type 1 receptor (anti-AT1R) and AD.
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association between anti-AT1R and AD. The secondary objective was to investigate the association between clinical or biomarker features of AD and anti-AT1R.
Samples from patients with mild AD participating in a longitudinal study in Western Norway (n?=?92, 65 [71%] females, mean age 74.8 [range 50-89]) and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n?=?102) were included. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers were assessed in a subgroup of patients. Patients were examined annually, including Mini-Mental State Examination. ELISA was used to measure anti-AT1R in serum. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical calculations and a p?
PubMed ID
26401573 View in PubMed
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Coagulation function of stored whole blood is preserved for 14 days in austere conditions: A ROTEM feasibility study during a Norwegian antipiracy mission and comparison to equal ratio reconstituted blood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265548
Source
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Jun;78(6 Suppl 1):S31-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Geir Strandenes
Ivar Austlid
Torunn O Apelseth
Tor A Hervig
Jan Sommerfelt-Pettersen
Maryanne C Herzig
Andrew P Cap
Heather F Pidcoke
Einar K Kristoffersen
Source
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Jun;78(6 Suppl 1):S31-8
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Blood Banks
Blood Coagulation - physiology
Blood Preservation
Feasibility Studies
Humans
Military Medicine
Norway
Shock, hemorrhagic - therapy
Thrombelastography
Abstract
Formulation of a medical preparedness plan for treating severely bleeding casualties during naval deployment is a significant challenge because of territory covered during most missions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concept of "walking blood bank" as a supportable plan for supplying safe blood and blood products.
In 2013, the Royal Norwegian Navy conducted antipiracy operations from a frigate, beginning in the Gulf of Aden and ending in the Indian Ocean. Crews were on 24-hour emergency alert in preparation for an enemy assault on the frigate. Under an approved command protocol, a "walking blood bank," using crew blood donations, was established for use on board and on missions conducted in rigid-hulled inflatable boats, during which freeze-dried plasma and leukoreduced, group O low anti-A/anti-B titer, cold-stored whole blood were stored in Golden Hour Boxes. Data demonstrating the ability to collect, store, and provide whole blood were collected to establish feasibility of implementing a whole blood-focused remote damage-control resuscitation program aboard a naval vessel. In addition, ROTEM data were collected to demonstrate feasibility of performing this analysis on a large naval vessel and to also measure hemostatic efficacy of cold-stored leukoreduced whole blood (CWB) stored during a period of 14 days. ROTEM data on CWB was compared with reconstituted whole blood.
Drills simulating massive transfusion activation were conducted, in which 2 U of warm fresh whole blood with platelet sparing leukoreduction were produced in 40 minutes, followed by collection of two additional units at 15-minute increments. The ROTEM machine performed well during ship-rolling, as shown by the overlapping calculated and measured mechanical piston movements measured by the ROTEM device. Error messages were recorded in 4 (1.5%) of 267 tests. CWB yielded reproducible ROTEM results demonstrating preserved fibrinogen function and platelet function for at least 3.5 weeks and 2 weeks, respectively. The frequency of ROTEM tests were as follows: EXTEM (n = 88), INTEM (n = 85), FIBTEM (n = 82), and APTEM (n = 12). CWB results were grouped. Compared with Days 0 to 2, EXTEM maximum clot firmness was significantly reduced, beginning on Days 10 to 14; however, results through that date remained within reference ranges and were comparable with the EXTEM maximum clot firmness for the reconstituted whole blood samples containing Day 5 room temperature-stored platelets.
A "walking blood bank" can provide a balanced transfusion product to support damage-control resuscitation/remote damage-control resuscitation aboard a frigate in the absence of conventional blood bank products. ROTEM analysis is feasible to monitor damage-control resuscitation and blood product quality. ROTEM analysis was possible in challenging operational conditions.
Therapeutic study, level V.
PubMed ID
26002261 View in PubMed
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Emergency whole-blood use in the field: a simplified protocol for collection and transfusion.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259072
Source
Shock. 2014 May;41 Suppl 1:76-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Geir Strandenes
Marc De Pasquale
Andrew P Cap
Tor A Hervig
Einar K Kristoffersen
Matthew Hickey
Christopher Cordova
Olle Berseus
Håkon S Eliassen
Logan Fisher
Steve Williams
Philip C Spinella
Source
Shock. 2014 May;41 Suppl 1:76-83
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
ABO Blood-Group System
Blood Banks
Blood Grouping and Crossmatching
Blood Preservation - methods
Blood Transfusion
Colloids - chemistry
Emergency Medicine - methods
Hemorrhage - therapy
Humans
Isotonic Solutions - chemistry
Military Personnel
Norway
Resuscitation - methods
Shock, hemorrhagic - therapy
War
Abstract
Military experience and recent in vitro laboratory data provide a biological rationale for whole-blood use in the treatment of exsanguinating hemorrhage and have renewed interest in the reintroduction of fresh whole blood and cold-stored whole blood to patient care in austere environments. There is scant evidence to support, in a field environment, that a whole blood-based resuscitation strategy is superior to a crystalloid/colloid approach even when augmented by a limited number of red blood cell (RBC) and plasma units. Recent retrospective evidence suggests that, in this setting, resuscitation with a full compliment of RBCs, plasma, and platelets may offer an advantage, especially under conditions where evacuation is delayed. No current evacuation system, military or civilian, is capable of providing RBC, plasma, and platelet units in a prehospital environment, especially in austere settings. As a result, for the vast minority of casualties, in austere settings, with life-threatening hemorrhage, it is appropriate to consider a whole blood-based resuscitation approach to provide a balanced response to altered hemostasis and oxygen debt, with the goal of reducing the risk of death from hemorrhagic shock. To optimize the successful use of fresh whole blood/cold-stored whole blood in combat field environments, proper planning and frequent training to maximize efficiency and safety will be required. Combat medics will need proper protocol-based guidance and education if whole-blood collection and transfusion are to be successfully and safely performed in austere environments. In this article, we present the Norwegian Naval Special Operation Commando unit-specific remote damage control resuscitation protocol, which includes field collection and transfusion of whole blood. This protocol can serve as a template for others to use and adjust for their own military or civilian unit-specific needs and capabilities for care in austere environments.
PubMed ID
24365879 View in PubMed
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Environmental pollutants in blood donors: The multicentre Norwegian donor study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307350
Source
Transfus Med. 2020 Jun; 30(3):201-209
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2020
Author
Maria Averina
Tor Hervig
Sandra Huber
Mette Kjaer
Einar K Kristoffersen
Bjørn Bolann
Author Affiliation
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Transfus Med. 2020 Jun; 30(3):201-209
Date
Jun-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The aim of this study was to measure blood concentrations of environmental pollutants in Norwegian donors and evaluate the risk of pollutant exposure through blood transfusions.
Transfused blood may be a potential source of exposure to heavy metals and organic pollutants and presents a risk to vulnerable patient groups such as premature infants.
Donors were randomly recruited from three Norwegian blood banks: in Bergen, Tromsø and Kirkenes. Selected heavy metals were measured in whole blood using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were measured in serum by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS).
Almost 18% of blood donors had lead concentrations over the limit suggested for transfusions in premature infants (0.09?µmol/L). About 11% of all donors had mercury concentrations over the suggested limit of 23.7 nmol/L. Cadmium was higher than the limit, 16?nmol/L, in 4% of donors. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations were over the suggested limit of 0.91?ng/mL in 68% and 100% of the donors, respectively. PFAS concentrations and heavy metal concentrations increased with donor's age.
A considerable percentage of donors had lead, PFOS and PFOA concentrations over the suggested limits. In addition, at each study site, there were donors with high mercury and cadmium concentrations. Selecting young donors for transfusions or measurements of pollutants in donor blood may be a feasible approach to avoid exposure through blood transfusions to vulnerable groups of patients such as premature infants.
PubMed ID
31926037 View in PubMed
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A patient with severe COVID-19 treated with convalescent plasma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature304923
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2020 09 08; 140(12):
Publication Type
Case Reports
Journal Article
Date
09-08-2020
Author
Michael Hahn
Maria Elena Huanca Condori
Atle Totland
Einar K Kristoffersen
Tor Audun Hervig
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2020 09 08; 140(12):
Date
09-08-2020
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Case Reports
Journal Article
Keywords
Betacoronavirus
COVID-19
Coronavirus Infections - therapy
Humans
Immunization, Passive
Norway
Pandemics
Pneumonia, Viral - therapy
SARS-CoV-2
Abstract
COVID-19 can lead to life-threatening disease. While awaiting vaccines or documented specific therapeutic agents, several alternative treatment options are under investigation. This is a case report of the first COVID-19 patient treated with convalescent plasma in Norway.
A patient with severe COVID-19 on prolonged mechanical ventilation, who was PCR SARS-Cov-2 positive on day 22, was transfused with convalescent plasma on day 31 and tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 the following day. The patient gradually improved and was weaned from the ventilator and discharged alive from the ICU on day 63.
This case report concerns one patient with clinical improvement after convalescent plasma transfusion. A SARS-CoV-2 test was not performed immediately before transfusion and the complexity of intensive care treatment makes it difficult to draw any conclusions on the potential effectiveness of this treatment. However, this case report is encouraging with regard to planned trials with convalescent plasma.
PubMed ID
32900176 View in PubMed
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