To examine the effect of balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) on chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) in patients with inoperable disease or persistent pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy.
Observational cohort study.
Referred patients with inoperable or persistent CTEPH.
Twenty consecutive CTEPH patients (10 females), aged 60±10 years.
Right heart catheterisation, functional capacity (cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and NYHA class) and blood sampled biomarkers N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin T examined at the time of diagnosis and repeated in all patients 3 months after the last BPA.
Seventy-three catheterisations were performed with 18.6±6.1 BPAs per patient on segmental and subsegmental arteries. Two deaths occurred following the first BPA, with an overall 10% periprocedural death rate. Reperfusion oedema complicated seven procedures. Comparisons before and after BPA showed significant haemodynamic improvements, including decreased mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) (45±11 mm Hg vs 33±10 mm Hg; p
Diastolic dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity in heart transplant recipients. A reliable, non-invasive marker of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure would simplify follow-up in these patients. We aimed to test the validity of echocardiographic indices of LV filling pressure in a contemporary population of heart transplant recipients.
Eighty-three patients were examined by right-sided heart catheterisation and echocardiography one year after heart transplantation. We explored the association between echocardiographic parameters of LV filling pressure and invasively measured pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP).
Peak early mitral flow velocity divided by septal early mitral relaxation velocity (E/e'(septal)) was the echocardiographic parameter that best correlated with PCWP (r = 0.47; p
Everolimus reduces the progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) in de novo heart transplant (HTx) recipients, but the influence on established CAV is unknown.
In this Nordic Certican Trial in Heart and lung Transplantation substudy, 111 maintenance HTx recipients (time post-HTx 5.8 ± 4.3 years) randomized to everolimus+reduced calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) or standard CNI had matching (intravascular ultrasound) examinations at baseline and 12 months allowing accurate assessment of CAV progression.
No significant difference in CAV progression was evident between the treatment groups (P = 0.30). When considering patients receiving concomitant azathioprine (AZA) therapy (n = 39), CAV progression was attenuated with everolimus versus standard CNI (?maximal intimal thickness 0.00 ± 0.04 and 0.04 ± 0.04 mm, ?percent atheroma volume 0.2% ± 3.0% and 2.6% ± 2.5%, and ?total atheroma volume 0.25 ± 14.1 and 19.8 ± 20.4 mm(3), respectively [P
The proliferation signal inhibitor everolimus offers the potential to reduce calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) exposure and alleviate CNI-related nephrotoxicity. Randomized trials in maintenance thoracic transplant patients are lacking.
In a 12-month, open-labeled, multicenter study, maintenance thoracic transplant patients (glomerular filtration rate > or =20 mL/min/1.73m and 1 year posttransplant were randomized to continue their current CNI-based immunosuppression or start everolimus with predefined CNI exposure reduction.
Two hundred eighty-two patients were randomized (140 everolimus, 142 controls; 190 heart, 92 lung transplants). From baseline to month 12, mean cyclosporine and tacrolimus trough levels in the everolimus cohort decreased by 57% and 56%, respectively. The primary endpoint, mean change in measured glomerular filtration rate from baseline to month 12, was 4.6 mL/min with everolimus and -0.5 mL/min in controls (P
The NOCTET (NOrdic Certican Trial in HEart and lung Transplantation) trial demonstrated that everolimus improves renal function in maintenance thoracic transplant (TTx) recipients. Nevertheless, introduction of everolimus is not recommended for patients with advanced renal failure. We evaluated NOCTET data to assess everolimus introduction amongst TTx recipients with advanced renal failure.
This 12-month multicenter Scandinavian study randomized 282 maintenance TTx recipients to everolimus introduction with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) reduction or standard CNI therapy. The measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) was noted at baseline and after 1-year using Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance.
In 21 patients with a baseline mGFR of 20 to 29 ml/min/1.73 m(2), renal function improved in the everolimus group compared with the control group ((?mGFR 6.7 ± 9.0 vs -1.6 ± 5.1 ml/min/1.73 m(2); p = 0.03). Amongst 173 patients with moderate renal impairment (mGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), renal function improvement was also greater amongst everolimus patients than in controls (?mGFR 5.1 ± 11.1 vs -0.5 ± 8.7 ml/min/1.73 m(2); p
There are few studies of the use of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) treatment as a bridge to heart transplantation (HTx). This is the first study to compare long-term clinical and haemodynamic outcomes in IABP-treated HTx patients and electively transplanted patients.
This was a retrospective study of all adult HTx recipients between 2001 and 2007. Thirty-two patients (aged 50 +/- 13 years) treated with IABP, as a bridge to HTx due to severe hypo-perfusion, were compared with 135 electively transplanted patients (aged 54 +/- 11 years). The mean time from onset of IABP to HTx was 21 +/- 16 days. Clinical condition improved during IABP treatment. Serum creatinine decreased from 128 +/- 56 to 102 +/- 29 micromol/L (P
The NOCTET study randomized 282 patients =1 year after heart or lung transplantation to continue conventional calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy or to start everolimus with reduced-exposure CNI. Last follow-up, at =5 years postrandomization (mean: 5.6 years) was attended by 72/140 everolimus patients (51.4%) and 91/142 controls (64.1%). Mean measured GFR remained stable in the everolimus group from randomization (51.3 ml/min) to last visit (51.4 ml/min) but decreased in controls (from 50.5 ml/min to 45.3 ml/min) and was significantly higher with everolimus at last follow-up (P = 0.004). The least squares mean (SE) change from randomization was -1.5 (1.7)ml/min with everolimus versus -7.2 (1.7)ml/min for controls (difference: 5.7 [95% CI 1.7; 9.6]ml/min; P = 0.006). The difference was accounted for by heart transplant patients (difference: 6.9 [95% 2.3; 11.5]ml/min; P = 0.004). Lung transplant patients showed no between-group difference at last follow-up. Rates of rejection, death, and major cardiac events were similar between groups, as was graft function. Pneumonia was more frequent with everolimus (18.3% vs. 6.4%). In conclusion, introducing everolimus in maintenance heart transplant patients, with reduced CNI, achieves a significant improvement in renal function which is maintained for at least 5 years, but an early renal benefit in lung transplant patients was lost. Long-term immunosuppressive efficacy was maintained.
The first successful pregnancy after heart transplantation was reported in 1988. Worldwide experience with heart and heart/lung transplanted (H-HLTx) pregnant women is limited. To expand this knowledge the collaborating Nordic thoracic transplant centers wanted to collect information on all such pregnancies from their centers.
Information was retrospectively collected on all H-HLTx pregnancies in the Nordic countries.
A total of 25 women have had 42 pregnancies and all survived the gestation. Minor complications were increasing incidence of proteinuria, hypertension and diabetes. Major problems were two rejections (early post partum), two severe renal failures, seven pre-eclampsias and 17 abortions. Five women died two to 12 years after delivery. Of 25 live born children, one was born with cancer and one died early after inheriting the mother's cardiomyopathy.
Pregnancy after H-HLTx can be successful for both mother and child. There are, however, many obstacles which should be addressed. Respecting the couple's desire for children the attitude should be carefully, not too optimistic, after proper pre-pregnant information and counseling. Delivery should preferably take place at the transplant center.
Background. In the past 5-10 years, drug treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension has evolved considerably. Experience and results from use of such updated treatment in Norway has not been reported. Material and method. 32 patients newly diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, were consecutively assessed with respect to hemodynamics and physical capacity. The results after three months were compared with those after 12 months. Observed survival was compared with estimated survival from the time when only conventional treatment was available. Results. The patients (78% women) were 42 ± 14 years, had dyspnea in NYHA class 2.9 ± 0.4 and a maximal oxygen uptake of 12.0 ± 3.9 ml/kg/min (37 ± 13% of the expected). Updated treatment led to significantly improved hemodynamics and physical capacity, which persisted during follow-up. During 43 ± 31 months follow-up, seven patients died while two underwent bilateral lung transplantation. Observed transplantation-free survival was 81% after one, two and three years, while that for estimated transplantation-free survival was 70%, 58% and 49% respectively. Interpretation. Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension with updated treatment improves hemodynamics and thereby symptoms. Mortality remains high, but is probably lower than it was when only conventional treatment was available.