OBJECTIVES: A pooled analysis of randomized trials has shown that oral anticoagulation therapy reduces the risk of ischaemic stroke with 68% in patients with atrial fibrillation. We examined the effectiveness of oral anticoagulation on risk of stroke of any nature (fatal and nonfatal ischaemic and/or haemorrhagic stroke) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation or flutter living in the County of North Jutland, Denmark. DESIGN: Cohort study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We used the Hospital Discharge Registry covering the county (490 000 inhabitants) from 1991 to 1998 to identify 2699 men and 2425 women with atrial fibrillation or flutter, aged 60-89 years. Data on prescriptions of anticoagulation were obtained from the National Health Service. We defined use of oral anticoagulation as date of prescription or reiteration plus 90 days. Patients were followed in the County Hospital Discharge Registry until a diagnosis of stroke (fatal and nonfatal ischaemic and/or haemorrhagic stroke), emigration, death or the end of 1998. We used Cox regression analyses to estimate the relative risk of stroke associated with use of oral anticoagulation compared with no use, adjusted for age, diabetes and underlying cardiovascular diseases. RESULTS: Eight hundred and thirty-eight of 2699 men (31%) and 552 of 2425 women (23%) with atrial fibrillation had one or more recorded prescriptions of oral anticoagulation. The incidence rates of stroke were 31 per 1000 person-years of follow-up in men, and 30 per 1000 person-years of follow-up in women. The adjusted relative risks of stroke during anticoagulation were 0.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-1.0] in men, and 1.0 (95% CI 0.7-1.6) in women compared with nonuse periods. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of oral anticoagulation in clinical practice may be lesser than the efficacy of oral anticoagulation reported from randomized trials.
Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance the need for profitability of the facilities with the need to minimize conflicts with other ocean uses. Our wave energy model quantifies harvestable wave energy and evaluates the net present value (NPV) of a wave energy facility based on a capital investment analysis. The model has a flexible framework and can be easily applied to wave energy projects at local, regional, and global scales. We applied the model and compatibility analysis on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to provide information for ongoing marine spatial planning, including potential wave energy projects. In particular, we conducted a spatial overlap analysis with a variety of existing uses and ecological characteristics, and a quantitative compatibility analysis with commercial fisheries data. We found that wave power and harvestable wave energy gradually increase offshore as wave conditions intensify. However, areas with high economic potential for wave energy facilities were closer to cable landing points because of the cost of bringing energy ashore and thus in nearshore areas that support a number of different human uses. We show that the maximum combined economic benefit from wave energy and other uses is likely to be realized if wave energy facilities are sited in areas that maximize wave energy NPV and minimize conflict with existing ocean uses. Our tools will help decision-makers explore alternative locations for wave energy facilities by mapping expected wave energy NPV and helping to identify sites that provide maximal returns yet avoid spatial competition with existing ocean uses.
Cites: Mar Environ Res. 2010 Jun;69(5):374-8120138659
Cites: Mar Environ Res. 2009 Oct;68(4):151-719560811
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Mar 20;109(12):4696-70122392996
Acute pulmonary hypertension has a high mortality at the onset. Patients surviving the first phase will usually recanalize the pulmonary arteries through intrinsic thrombolytic mechanisms and medical treatment. However, in some cases there is insufficient resolution of the emboli with subsequent thrombotic and fibrotic reorganization, leading to a worsening of the pulmonary obstruction. In the open pulmonary arteries the disease may lead to hypertrophy of the media and intimal proliferation, thus leading to a further increase in the pulmonary vascular resistance. This again leads to hypertrophy of the right ventricle and ultimately to right-sided heart failure. Untreated, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension has a five-year mortality approaching 100%, but extensive pulmonary thrombendarterectomy using extracorporeal circulation and deep hypothermia has been shown to lower the pulmonary vascular resistance and thereby improve the prognosis significantly. Operative treatment can now be offered in Denmark, and the purpose of this review is to draw attention to the disease, its symptoms, diagnosis and the surgical treatment.
Recent research suggests that other surrogate markers than QTc, including QTc dispersion and Tpeak-Tend, may better correlate with cardiac arrhythmia risk. While sertindole significantly prolongs the QTc interval, the effects on other markers of arrhythmia risk, such as QTc dispersion and Tpeak-Tend are unknown.
Digital 12-lead ECG was recorded at baseline and at steady-state in 37 patients switched to sertindole. ECG was analysed for Fridericia-corrected QT duration (QTcF), QT dispersion and Tpeak-Tend.
From a baseline QTcF of 407 +/- 22 ms, mean QTcF prolongation during sertindole treatment was 20 +/- 23 ms, P
BACKGROUND: Studies of long-term intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suggest opposite effects on cardiovascular disease risk. Common mechanisms of action are probable. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on cardiovascular risk markers of dietary enrichment with TFA or n-3 PUFA. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING: Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. SUBJECTS: In all, 87 healthy males included, 79 completed. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of a daily intake of 33 g of experimental fats from either partially hydrogenated soy oil containing 20 g of TFA, 12 g of fish oil with approximately 4 g of n-3 PUFA and 21 g of control fat, or 33 g of control fat. The experimental fats were incorporated into bakery products. Plasma lipids, blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV), arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were recorded before and after intervention and at follow-up 12 weeks after the intervention. RESULTS: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased in the TFA group and triglycerides and mean arterial blood pressure decreased in the n-3 PUFA group compared to the control group. HRV, arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were unchanged. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the association between coronary heart disease risk and intake of TFA and n-3 PUFA relates only modestly to changes in traditional risk markers. SPONSORSHIP: Danish Medical Research Council (Grant no. 22-01-0390), Center of Advanced Food Research (Copenhagen, Denmark) (Grant no. KVL-R-2001-107), the Danish Heart Association (Grant no. 99-2-3-45-22748), Novozymes (Bagsvaerd, Denmark), Aarhus Olie (Aarhus, Denmark), and from private sources. The experimental fats were provided by Pronova Biocare (Aalesund, Norway) and Aarhus Olie (Aarhus, Denmark).
In order to evaluate the effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on systolic left ventricular function, we investigated the effect of daily supplementation with 5.2 g n-3 PUFA for 12 weeks in 55 patients with a recent myocardial infarction in a double blind placebo-controlled design. Left ventricular function was assessed by transthoracal echo-cardiography and plasma concentration of proANP and N-terminal proANP. No effect of n-3 PUFA could be demonstrated on these indices of left ventricular function.
To examine a) the use of lipid-lowering drugs in North Jutland County in Denmark from 1991 to 1998 and b) the pattern of usage according to sex and age.
We used the Pharmaco-Epidemiological Prescription Database in the county to identify all reimbursed prescriptions for lipid-lowering therapy from 1991 to 1998. One-year incidence rates (IR) and prevalence (P) of the use of lipid-lowering drugs were calculated. Both IR and P of patients in lipid-lowering therapy were stable until 1994, with the IR below 100 per 100 000 for both sexes. The IR then increased from 59.9 to 236.5 per 100 000 person-years in 1998 for women, and from 88.6 to 322.8 per 100 000 person-years for men. The utilization patterns were identical between the sexes. Thus, in both women and men the highest prevalence and incidence rates of lipid-lowering drug therapy were seen in the 60-69-year-olds. Furthermore, the marked increase in both prevalence and incidence of persons on lipid-lowering drug therapy between 1994 and 1998 was the result of an increased number of prescriptions in the 50-59, 60-69 and 70 + years olds, in both women and men. There was a remarkable 4-5 fold increase in the numbers of new patients who received statins during the same period.
The overall use of lipid-lowering drugs has increased markedly over the last few years in Northern Jutland, Denmark. The increase began following publication of the first major trial documenting the benefit of therapy with statins.