Beneficial effects of 1-year optimal medical treatment with and without additional PTA on inflammatory markers of atherosclerosis in patients with PAD. Results from the Oslo Balloon Angioplasty versus Conservative Treatment (OBACT) study.
The influence of optimal medical treatment (OMT) with or without additional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on vascular inflammation in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAD) patients was investigated. Patients with intermittent claudication (IC) and angiographically verified PAD were randomized to OMT (n = 28) or OMT + PTA (n = 28) and followed for 12 months. Ankle-brachial index (ABI), treadmill walking distances (WD), visual analogue scale (VAS), and blood sampling for the determination of selected soluble biomarkers were undertaken at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. After both 3 and 12 months, ABI, WD and VAS were highly significantly improved in favour of OMT + PTA (p
The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of cancer among 318 male employees of a niobium mining company which was only operated between 1951 and 1965. Many of the workers, especially underground miners, were exposed to the daughters of radon and thoron and also to thorium. The accumulated doses to the workers from short-lived radon and thoron daughters in the mine atmosphere were assessed to be relatively low; up to 300 working-level months. During the follow-up period 1953-1981, 24 new cases of cancer were observed compared to an expected number of 22.8. Twelve cases of lung cancer had occurred versus 3.0 expected. Among the 77 miners, 9 cases of lung cancer were observed against 0.8 expected. Associations between the occurrence of lung cancer and exposure to alpha radiation and smoking were found. For the radon and thoron daughter exposure, about 50 excess cases per million person-years at risk per working-level month were observed.
The first dedicated PET/CT centre in Norway was established at the Norwegian Radiumhospital in Oslo in 2005. Knowing that the introductions of PET-isotopes in nuclear medicine give increased occupational radiation dose to the technicians, a study was carried out in order to map the doses to staff members during different working operations and to see if any dose reducing measures were needed. The results of the study are in good agreement with other studies, and a technician dose of 20-25 nSv per injected MBq of 18F seems to be representative for such centres. For an average injected activity of 350 MBq per patient, the dose limit is reached after handling around 3000 patients annually. For an annual number of less than 500 patients at the centre and rotation of the staff, an annual individual dose for the technicians would realistically be less than 2-3 mSv. Even a major increase in the number of patients will not result in individual doses near the ICRP dose limit.
Theoretical calculations are reported of the mean respiratory dose from inhalation of short-lived radon daughters under different ventilation condtions. These calculations are related to the variations in ventilation practice over different periods of time.
The series comprises 40 soldiers who sustained 49 local cold injuries during their service in The Norwegian Army. Twenty-one cold injuries were classified as first degree, 15 as second degree and 13 as third degree. No difference in ambient temperature at the time of injury was observed between the three categories of injuries, but the duration of cold exposure was significantly longer in those suffering third degree injury. Thirty-eight of the 40 soldiers experienced sequelae. The trend was that the severity of sequelae was most pronounced in third degree injuries. However, soldiers with first degree injury may suffer from significant sequelae, while those with third degree injury may exhibit a more benign clinical course. Overall degree of distress from sequelae was mild to moderate with exacerbation of symptoms and signs upon cold exposure. Although the influence on civilian occupational activity was minor, a substantial negative impact on performance in the field or combat setting may be anticipated. Soldiers as well as commanders must be thoroughly informed about prophylactic measures, symptoms and signs of an impending cold injury. Rewarming of the skin must be initiated without delay.
Radiation doses from natural radiation and from man-made modifications on natural radiation, and different natural radiological environments in the Nodic countries are summarized and used as a perspective for the radiological consequences of nuclear energy production. The significance of different radiation sources can be judged against the total collective effective dose equivalent from natural radiation in the Nordic countries, 92,000 manSv per year. The collective dose from nuclear energy production during normal operation is estimated to 20 manSv per year and from non-nuclear energy production to 80 manSv per year. The increase in collective dose due to the conservation of heating energy in Nordic dwellings is estimated to 23,000 manSv per year, from 1973 to 1984. An indirect radiological danger index is defined in order to be able to compare the significance of estimated future releases of radionuclides from a final repository of spent nuclear fuel to the consequences of natural radionuclides in different environments. The danger index of natural radiological environments will not be significantly increased by future releases of nuclear fuel radionuclides.
The radiological impact of former mining activities in the Fen area in southern Norway has been assessed. The area is known to have enhanced concentrations of Th. A recent epidemiological study suggested a significant increment of lung cancer among the former miners, and the doses to the miners have been assessed. The main contributor to the effective dose equivalent in one of the mines was inhaled 220Rn progeny. Water in drilled wells and in nearby lakes has been analysed for 220Rn and Ra. Uranium and Th analyses were performed on mine and lake water. The mining activity does not seem to have contaminated drinking water significantly. The tailings from Nb production has enriched Ra and Th concentrations. The tailings and the possible use of waste rock from the mining are probably the most important environmental results of the mining activities.