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[Adolescents living on their own--social control and health related behavior]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10270
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Jan 30;121(3):287-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-30-2001
Author
H J Breidablik
E. Meland
Author Affiliation
Kommunelegekontoret 6030 Langevåg. hans.breidablik@c2i.net
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Jan 30;121(3):287-91
Date
Jan-30-2001
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Comparative Study
Cross-Sectional Studies
English Abstract
Female
Food Habits
Health Behavior
Health status
Humans
Life Style
Male
Norway
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Social Control, Informal
Social Environment
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social control is an important dimension in the interaction between members of social groups. Such control may contribute to adherence to group norms and prevent health related risk behaviour. Adolescents moving out from home to live on their own may become left to themselves and lose their social network and mechanisms of control. We wanted to examine to what extent high school students living in lodgings were different from students living at home concerning health and health related behaviour. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on data from a cross sectional inquiry among 828 high school students (91% of all students) in Førde carried out in 1997. One in four students lived alone in bedsitters. Bivariate analyses were performed separately for the two age groups 15-17 and over 18 years of age. Students living on their own were compared with students living at home concerning self-reported health and health behaviour. Multivariate analyses were performed to control for confounding. RESULTS: Students living in bedsitters more often reported health risk behaviour than their home-living peers. The differences was most conspicuous in the youngest age group. Differences were found for cigarette smoking, alcohol use, unhealthy diet, and age of sexual debut. Health-risk behaviour was most prevalent among students in vocational courses living alone. Self-reported health and emotional wellbeing were as good among students living alone as it was among their home-living peers. CONCLUSION: Reduction of social control among students living alone in lodgings seem correlated with increased health risk behaviour. Students in vocational courses may be at particular risk. Social planning of education should consider the need to belong and the need for new social networks among students leaving home to continue their education.
PubMed ID
11242867 View in PubMed
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Assessment of clinical features predicting streptococcal pharyngitis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36410
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1993;25(2):177-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
E. Meland
A. Digranes
R. Skjaerven
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Gade Institute, Bergen, Norway.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1993;25(2):177-83
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Humans
Infant
Norway - epidemiology
Pharyngitis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Predictive value of tests
Prevalence
Probability
Sensitivity and specificity
Streptococcal Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology
Tonsillitis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
A total of 133 patients who consulted 4 general practitioners in Bergen 1988/89 for sore throat were examined. 8 clinical parameters with expected predictive value for identifying streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis were recorded. Clinical examination was validated against bacteriologic examination at a microbiological laboratory. The prevalence of streptococcal infection (group A, C and G) was 29%. An algorithm was constructed which identifies 3 groups with varying probabilities of streptococcal infection. A positive predictive value of 62% in the group with highest prevalence and a negative predictive value of 90% in the group with lowest prevalence was found. The consequences of performing a confirmative test only on patients in the group with uncertain prediction for streptococcal disease was elaborated. Although slightly reduced accuracy was demonstrated, due to diminished sensitivity, selective testing is recommended. Another algorithm was constructed for use in situations where no confirmative testing is available. The positive predictive value in the group with highest probability of streptococcal infection was 51%, and the negative predictive value in the group with lowest probability was 84%.
PubMed ID
8511511 View in PubMed
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Assessment of coronary heart disease risk, I. A postal inquiry among primary care physicians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature54887
Source
Fam Pract. 1994 Jun;11(2):117-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1994
Author
E. Meland
E. Laerum
I. Stensvold
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, Division for General Practice, Bergen, Norway.
Source
Fam Pract. 1994 Jun;11(2):117-21
Date
Jun-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude of Health Personnel
Coronary Disease - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Primary Health Care
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to examine general practitioners' abilities to make a correct estimation of the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). A 10% random sample of Norwegian primary care physicians (n = 288) received a questionnaire that presented 10 case histories containing information about five CHD risk factors. The respondents' risk estimation was compared with a composite score computed from epidemiologic data. The observed general tendency was towards underestimating the CHD risk. However, 'high-risk' histories were recognized as CHD risk persons. Assessment of CHD risk due to multiple marginal abnormalities was only exceptionally correct. Hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension in men were acknowledged as contributing to clinically significant CHD risk only by a minority of GPs. Heavy smoking and a positive family history were associated with a more accurate estimation of CHD risk. Forty per cent of the physicians did not recognize the sex dependency of cholesterol as a CHD risk factor. None of the physician characteristics could predict variation in correct risk assessment.
PubMed ID
7958572 View in PubMed
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Assessment of coronary heart disease risk, II. A clinical multicentre study of general practitioners' risk assessment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature54886
Source
Fam Pract. 1994 Jun;11(2):122-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1994
Author
E. Meland
E. Laerum
E H Lehmann
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, Division for General Practice, Bergen, Norway.
Source
Fam Pract. 1994 Jun;11(2):122-6
Date
Jun-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude of Health Personnel
Coronary Disease - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Primary Health Care
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
The objectives of the present study were: (i) to compare clinical assessment of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk with risk estimation faced with simulated, written case histories; (ii) to observe the risk assessment performed by general practitioners (GPs) in their clinical setting. Thirty-one GPs participating in a multicentre study were asked to invite 20 consecutive male patients aged 30-59 years to an opportunistic screening of CHD risk factors. They assessed the risk status of these patients and of 10 written case histories containing information about corresponding CHD risk factors. A composite 'infarction score' computed from epidemiologic data was used as a gold standard. Diagnostic performance in the clinical setting was compared with that in the simulated setting by Pearson's correlation. A weak, but statistically significant positive correlation was demonstrated when comparing correct estimation in the two settings. No correlation was found for over- and underestimation. Sensitivity was increased faced with clinical patients at the sacrifice of specificity compared to the simulated setting. The impact of a positive family history on clinical assessment parallels the epidemiological estimate. Due to lack of sensitivity, the other factors had a lower impact on risk estimation than an epidemiological estimate would presuppose. We advocate the application of a formal risk estimation to improve risk assessment accuracy. The synergistic effect of multiple risk factors should be emphasized in medical training to improve the clinical risk estimation.
PubMed ID
7958573 View in PubMed
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[Benzodiazepines--attitudes and prescription practice among general practitioners and psychiatrists].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature225561
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1991 Oct 10;111(24):2998-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-10-1991

[Consultation course in medical education--students' evaluation].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197191
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Aug 20;120(19):2263-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-20-2000
Author
A. Baerheim
E. Meland
E. Schei
Author Affiliation
Seksjon for allmennmedisin, Universitetet i Bergen. anders.barheim@isf.uib.no
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Aug 20;120(19):2263-5
Date
Aug-20-2000
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communication
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Focus Groups
Humans
Learning
Models, Educational
Norway
Questionnaires
Referral and Consultation
Students, Medical
Abstract
Final-year medical students at the University of Bergen take a 16-hour consultation course. The students are trained in an educational setting focusing on structured elements of the patient-centred consultation method, self evaluation and peer evaluation. The course has a strong emphasis on learning by doing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the learning process and the subjective outcome of the course. We used a focus group technique and a self-administered free text based questionnaire.
Transcriptions from the focus groups and free text from the questionnaires were analysed using qualitative methods.
The qualitative analysis revealed three main categories of statements about the learning process: about the process of selfchange in the consultations; about the pain of self evaluation; and about insufficiency faced with clinical uncertainty.
We conclude that the course seems to initiate changes in consultation strategies. The students' evaluation also underline the need to take care of the students during a process of change in which they are vulnerable.
Notes
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 May 20;121(13):163811446059
PubMed ID
10997085 View in PubMed
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[Dark skyline--developmental traits of self-experienced health during childhood]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32208
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Mar 20;121(8):970-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-20-2001
Author
H J Breidablik
E. Meland
Author Affiliation
Seksjon for allmennmedisin Universitetet i Bergen 5009 Bergen. hans.breidablik@c2i.net
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Mar 20;121(8):970-2
Date
Mar-20-2001
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Female
Health
Health status
Humans
Male
Norway
Questionnaires
School Health Services
Self Concept
PubMed ID
11332390 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Experience of family break-up during childhood--health and health behavior in adolescence]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33252
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1999 Jun 20;119(16):2331-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-20-1999
Author
H J Breidablik
E. Meland
Author Affiliation
Seksjon for allmennmedisin Universitetet i Bergen.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1999 Jun 20;119(16):2331-5
Date
Jun-20-1999
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adolescent Health Services
Adolescent Psychology
Child
Child Psychology
Divorce - psychology - statistics & numerical data
English Abstract
Health Behavior
Health status
Humans
Life Change Events
Norway - epidemiology
Preventive Health Services
Psychophysiologic Disorders - epidemiology - prevention & control
Questionnaires
Risk-Taking
Abstract
During recent years the prevalence of family break-up has increased. Every third child growing up in Norway today may experience divorce among their parents. In this paper we try to illustrate to what extent experiencing divorce during childhood is related to subjective health and health behaviour in adolescence. The study is based on a self-administered questionnaire among 828 students in secondary schools in Førde (91% of all). Every fifth student reported experience of family break-up, and we compared this group with the rest concerning subjective health and health behaviour. We found significant differences in the disfavour of adolescents whose parents were divorced, with regard to both physical and emotional health complaints. We also demonstrated marked differences concerning health risk behaviour, especially smoking. The subjective assessment of wellbeing and performance in school were lower among adolescents with divorce experience. It is concluded that family break-up represents a major stressful event for children with marked health consequences in adolescence. Such consequences should be considered in plans for preventive health measures and health care for children and adolescents.
PubMed ID
10414197 View in PubMed
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Focus groups as a path to clinical knowledge about the acutely and severely ill child.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34342
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 1997 Mar;15(1):26-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1997
Author
K. Malterud
A. Baerheim
S. Hunskaar
E. Meland
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Norway.
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 1997 Mar;15(1):26-9
Date
Mar-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease - therapy
Adult
Anxiety
Child
Clinical Competence
Cues
Emotions
Family Practice
Female
Focus Groups
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Parents - psychology
Physician-Patient Relations
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To identify elements of clinical information beyond the area of knowledge presented in medical textbooks, but used by the general practitioner when confronted with the acutely and severely ill child. DESIGN: Focus group approach. SETTING: A course for teachers in General Practice at the Division for General Practice, University of Bergen, Norway. SUBJECTS: 25 experienced general practitioners serving as clinical teachers at the Division for General Practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical descriptions arising from incident-based anecdotes and experiences. RESULTS: Issues were reported concerning the doctor's emotional reactions, cues from the parents of the child, atypical contact between doctor and child, cognitive discrepancies, and difficulties in acting on cues. CONCLUSION: This material identifies elements of tacit clinical knowledge which may provide a basis for further analysis and shared action.
PubMed ID
9101620 View in PubMed
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The importance of self-efficacy in cardiovascular risk factor change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49935
Source
Scand J Public Health. 1999 Mar;27(1):11-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1999
Author
E. Meland
J G Maeland
E. Laerum
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Norway.
Source
Scand J Public Health. 1999 Mar;27(1):11-7
Date
Mar-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Diet
Exercise
Family Practice
Health Behavior
Health education
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Ischemia - prevention & control
Norway
Odds Ratio
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Self Efficacy
Smoking Cessation
Abstract
SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: The study was based on the total patient sample (n = 110) of a randomized controlled trial comparing two intervention methods advising cardiovascular high-risk men of lifestyle changes in general practice. Behaviour and risk factor changes during the one-year intervention study were analysed using multiple regression and logistic regression analyses with the above-mentioned independent variables. SETTING: Twenty-two general practice centres in the county of Hordaland, western Norway. RESULTS: Self-efficacy of increased physical exercise was the only variable significantly related to exercise change. Age and self-efficacy were statistical significant predictors of smoking cessation success. None of the independent variables was statistically significantly related to blood pressure or cholesterol change. Educational level related negatively, although statistically insignificantly, with total risk change. CONCLUSION: The study confirms the importance of self-efficacy in both human behaviour and motivation for behaviour change. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to explore the impact of possible predictors for cardiovascular risk behaviour change, predictors such as education, age, self-efficacy, doctors' interpersonal skills, and number of appointments.
PubMed ID
10847665 View in PubMed
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16 records – page 1 of 2.