The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may play a role in dementia pathogenesis because of its effects on vascular and metabolic homeostasis, amyloid metabolism, and learning and memory. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), a pivotal RAS protein, is encoded for by a gene containing a functional ID variant, which has been related to dementia risk. We examined the relationship between the ACE Insertion Deletion (ACE ID) variant and dementia with consideration for metabolic phenotypes, age and APOEepsilon4 using a population-based, cross-sectional sample of 891 Swedish women and men aged 70-92 years, of whom 61 people were demented. The odds of dementia was two-fold higher among those with ACE II genotype, and ranged from 2.18 to 4.35 among those with dementia onset
92 adult patients with springtime allergy were investigated with skin tests, provocation tests and the RAST. Allergen extracts from 12 different deciduous trees were used. Positive reactions, often of high intensity, were most often found with birch, alder, bog-myrtle, beech and hazel allergens whereas oak, aspen, linden, elm, sallow, maple and poplar allergens more often gave negative or only weak positive test results. Cross sensitizations were found between botanically related as well as between less related species of the trees. Almost all patients with a clinically relevant tree pollen allergy had positive provocation tests with birch pollen. No patient had positive reactions to all the 12 allergens included in the study. 68% had positive provocation tests with the combination birch, alder and hazel. It is concluded that for diagnostic screening purposes it is sufficient to use birch pollen allergen. If the majority of relevant tree pollens are to be included in a diagnostic or therapeutic programme in Western Sweden it should contain birch, alder, hazel, beech and bog-myrtle allergens.
We carried out a retrospective study of the frequency of ankle sprains in basketball players. A questionnaire about previous ankle injuries, time off after such injuries, current ankle problems, personal data, number of practice hours and the use of prophylactic measures was sent out to 102 basketball players in a second division league in Sweden. Ninety-six players answered. 92% of them had suffered an ankle sprain while playing basketball, and of these 83% reported repeated sprains of one ankle. In the last two seasons, 78% of the players had injured at least one ankle. The injury frequency in the investigation was 5.5 ankle injuries per 1000 activity hours. 22% of the players used some kind of prophylactic support of their ankle joints. Because of the great number of ankle sprains and the disability in terms of time away from sports that they cause, prevention of these injuries is essential.
[Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are responsible for most of the sport-related handicaps. There are reasons for many Swedish orthopedists to reevaluate their conservative treatment of acute injuries].
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of genetic variants in the estrogen receptor beta gene to the aetiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several lines of evidence from human and animal studies suggest a protective role for estrogen in PD. Recently the estrogen receptor beta subtype was reported to be an important mediator of estrogen actions in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms at position 1730 and 1082 in the ER beta gene were genotyped, using pyrosequencing, in 260 patients with PD and 308 controls recruited from the Swedish population. Neither of the two estrogen receptor beta polymorphisms was associated with an increased risk for PD. However, the G allele of the A1730G polymorphism was more frequent in patients with an early age of onset than in patients with a late age of onset of PD (P = 0.006). Patients carrying the GG genotype had an odds ratio of 2.2 for having an early onset of PD compared to non-carriers. In conclusion, our results indicate that genetic variation in the estrogen receptor beta gene may influence the age of onset of PD.
Total IgE, RAST results with tree pollen allergens, and prick test results with birch, grass and mugwort pollen allergens were correlated to 872 hay fever patients' reported food hypersensitivity (FH). A positive correlation was found between FH and the RAST and prick test results with birch pollen allergen. At each level of birch pollen sensitivity the incidence of FH was lower in patients with high total IgE than in those with lower total IgE. A negative correlation was found between grass pollen allergy and FH in birch pollen allergics. It is suggested that antigens in some foods have a specific ability to bridge anti-birch IgE molecules on mast cells. An explanation of the negative correlation between FH and total IgE and grass pollen allergy could be that a high number of non-birch-specific IgE molecules on the mast cells will reduce the probability that two anti-birch IgE molecules should bind on nearby sites.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical produced in large volumes. Its main use is associated with polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and thermal paper. In contrast to other applications, thermal paper contains BPA in its un-reacted form as an additive, which is subjected to migration. Receiving a significant amount of attention from the scientific community and beyond, due to its controversial endocrine-disrupting effects, the industry is attempting to substitute BPA in variety of applications. Alternative phenolic compounds have been proposed for use in thermal paper; however, information to what extent BPA alternatives have been used in paper is sparse. The aim of the present work was to quantify BPA and its alternatives (bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), 4-cumylphenol (HPP) and bisphenol F (BPF)) in waste paper and board from Danish households, thermal paper receipts, non-carbon copy paper and conventional printer paper. BPA was found in all waste paper samples analysed, while BPS was identified in 73% of them. Only BPB was not identified in any of the samples. BPA and BPS were found in the majority of the receipts, which contained no measurable concentrations of the remaining alternatives. Although receipts showed the highest concentrations of BPA and BPS, office paper, flyers and corrugated boxes, together with receipts, represented the major flux of the two compounds in waste paper streams.
AIM: Several studies have shown a negative correlation between cancer and atopy-related diseases. There are also a few reports of a positive relationship. We wanted to further evaluate these relationships in a prospective study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The incidence of malignant diseases among adult patients with atopy-related diseases (asthma, rhinitis, urticaria, eczema etc; n = 13811), who had been skin prick tested in 1976-1999 was compared with the incidence in the general population. Expected cancer incidence from the date of skin prick testing up to 1999 was obtained from cause-, sex-, calendar-year-, and 5-year-age-group specific incidence rates for the county. These rates were calculated from cancer incidence and population counts obtained from the Swedish Cancer Register. The 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cause-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated. Skin prick tests were performed with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, horse, dog, cat, timothy, mugwort, birch, and Cladosporium. Patients having one or several positive skin prick test reactions (> or = 2+) were regarded as atopics. RESULTS: 119 cases of cancer occurred among 6224 atopic individuals (SIR 1.0) compared with 216 cases (SIR 0.94, CI 0.82-1.08) among 6358 non-atopics. There was a slight excess of Hodgkin's lymphoma cases among atopic men (SIR 4.03, 95% CI 1-10.3), and of non Hodgkin lymphoma cases among atopic women (SIR 4.52, 95% CI 1.23-11.6). However, a large number of comparisons were made which can have caused random findings. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed no associations between atopy or allergic symptoms, and subsequent cancer risk, but supported the theory that type-I allergy is not related to cancer risk.
The purpose of this study was to explore the views and experiences of adult cancer patients about patient participation in care and decision making and the preconditions for this participation. The data were collected by means of focused interviews; in addition the patients completed depression and problem-solving instruments. The sample comprised 34 cancer patients from the haematological and oncological wards of one university hospital in Finland. The results revealed considerable variation in the patients' views on their participation in care and decision making. Some of the patients understood participation either in terms of contributing to the decision making or in terms of expressing their views on treatment options. Some considered that their participation in care was impossible. Patient participation in care and decision making was promoted by good health, access to information, assertiveness, good interactive relationships with nurses and physicians, and encouragement by nurses and physicians to participate. Factors restricting such patient participation were poor health, ignorance, anxiety, age, time pressures of staff, lack of time, high staff turnover and poor interactive relationships. With regard to participation in medical decision making, the patients were divided into three groups: (1) active participants (n = 7), (2) patients giving active consent (n = 9), and (3) patients giving passive consent to medical decisions (n = 18).