In a longitudinal study of an unselected population of men and women standardized arterial blood pressure was measured at 70 and again at 80. At 70 the prevalence of arterial hypertension (greater than or equal to 160/95 mmHg) was 46% in men and 45% in women. At 80 it was only 19% and 30%. This decrease was partly owed to an increased ten year mortality in hypertensive 70 year old women. However, also a significant individual decrease was seen in the participants examined twice, - a decrease that did not seem connected to the increased use of antihypertensive medicine and was not connected to the presence of arteriosclerotic symptoms, but showed a connection to pathological ECG-changes at 80.
In a cardiovascular survey of 928 men and women aged exactly 30, 40, 50 & 60 years, a correlation between serum cholesterol, cholesterol/HDL-ratio and arterial blood pressure was found. This correlation was indirectly caused by mutual correlations to relative weight and age as a final result found after multiple rank correlation analysis in each sex. HDL was not correlated to arterial blood pressure at all.
In a ten-year prospective study of a population of men and women aged exactly 70 at entry and otherwise selected only according to geography, the predictive values of serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides were evaluated concerning total mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer manifestations in the eighth decade. Both high and low cholesterol values at 70 were associated with excess total mortality in men, the former showing excess CVD mortality, the latter excess cancer mortality. In men, high values of triglycerides at 70 were associated with increased CVD mortality as well as CVD development. In women, high values of triglycerides at 70 were associated with excess hospitalization for cerebrovascular incidence alone.
In connection with a screening investigation for high blood cholesterol in middle-aged men in general practice in the Municipality of Copenhagen, all participants with cholesterol values greater than or equal to 7.5 mmol/l were given brief advice by their own general practitioner and were invited to come for fasting blood lipid tests approximately ten days later. In cases with continued cholesterol greater than or equal to 6.8 mmol/l, the participants together with wives or partners were invited to formalized dietary advice in small groups. Already before the formalized dietary advice, an average decrease in serum cholesterol of 10% was observed. This was attributed to biological variation, absence of fasting, the degree of error between the measuring methods and also a genuine decrease on the basis of the brief dietary advice by the general practitioner. On control after dietary advice, a further decrease in cholesterol of 15% was observed while low density lipoprotein cholesterol fell by 20% and triglycerides by 23%. These decreases must be considered to result mainly from the dietary advice. It is concluded that a single but professional session of dietary advice in small groups and with involvement of the wives or partners is an effective method of treatment in hypercholesterolaemia. If the decrease in cholesterol obtained can be maintained, the literature suggests that the risk of development of ischaemic heart disease during the subsequent 5-7 years is reduced by 20-30%.