OBJECTIVE: A common polymorphism (-1C to T) in the translation initiation sequence of annexin A5 (ANV) gene has recently been associated with a decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between the ANV genepolymorphism and the risk of AMI and ischemic sudden cardiac death (SCD) in middle-aged Finnish males. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control study involving three distinct groups of subjects was carried out: (1) victims of SCD (n=98), (2) survivors of AMI (n=212), and (3) randomly selected control subjects without any history of coronary heart disease (n=243). The ANV polymorphism was genotyped in each study group. RESULTS: Among the control group of healthy Finnish males the prevalence rates of the CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 83.1%, 15.2%, and 1.6%, respectively. Among the survivors of AMI, the prevalence rates of CC, CT, and TT were 79.7%, 20.3%, and 0%, respectively, and among the victims of SCD 83.7%, 16.3%, and 0%, respectively. No significant differences in the genotype or allele distributions were observed between the study groups. CONCLUSION: The -1C to T polymorphism in the ANV gene is not associated with the risk of AMI or SCD in middle-aged Finnish males.
The aim of the present work was to investigate whether acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) blast cells express a soluble (s) form of interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor (R), and if they do, what is the mechanism of production. Eight AML patient cell lines and 25 primary AML blast cell samples were investigated. The cell lines secreted high quantities of sIL-6R into their culture medium when examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To determine whether sIL-6R is synthesized by a mechanism of alternative splicing, RNA was analysed from all the AML blast cell samples by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In this method, primer sites flanking the transmembrane domain were utilized and the alternatively spliced IL-6R mRNA was distinguished from the non-spliced transcript form by size. All the cell lines and 64% of the primary blast cell samples expressed the alternatively spliced IL-6R mRNA. To confirm the phenomenon of alternative splicing at protein level, cytoplasmic protein fractions of the cell lines were investigated by using a sensitive adaptation of the Western blot method. All the cell lines expressed two IL-6R proteins sized 80 and 50 kDa and corresponding to the membraneous and soluble forms of IL-6R, respectively. In conclusion, the results obtained at both mRNA and protein levels strongly support alternative splicing as a mechanism of sIL-6R production in AML. Because sIL-6R modulates the effects of IL-6 on target cells, differences in sIL-6R expression levels may partially explain the previously observed diversity in IL-6-induced growth responses in AML
We investigated the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) alone and in combination with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) on the granulocyte-macrophage (GM) colony formation of peripheral blood progenitors isolated from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) (n = 12) or other myeloproliferative disorders (n = 10) as well as from healthy controls (n = 7). The ATRA or IFN-alpha alone inhibited slightly, but not significantly, the GM colony growth in CML. Granulocyte-macrophage colony formation decreased significantly (P
The present study investigated whether all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced apoptosis in acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) is related to changes in mitochondrial function. Two human AML cell lines, OU-AML-3 and OU-AML-7, known to be inducible to time-dependent apoptosis of varying degrees by ATRA, were used. Apoptosis induced by ATRA was shown to be a slow event. It was detected by the DNA electrophoretic method and cytofluorimetrical annexin V assay after 48 h exposure, and by morphology and polyADPribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage after 72 h exposure of AML cells to ATRA. The efflux of mitochondrial cytochrome c to cytosol was notable in Western blotting after 48 h exposure of the cells to ATRA and was observed before the drop in the mitochondrial membrane potential, which only took place after 72 h exposure, when measured by flow cytometry and a JC-1 probe. The apoptotic events in mitochondria were more evident in the OU-AML-3 than the OU-AML-7 cell line. This might relate to the different bcl-2 contents of the cell lines: the basic bcl-2 levels of the OU-AML-7 cell line were almost twofold compared to that of the OU-AML-3 cell line, as analysed by the ELISA method. However, both of the cell lines showed progressive down-regulation of bcl-2, which began after 12-24 h exposure of the cells to ATRA as determined by ELISA, Western blotting and flow cytometry. The present results show that mitochondria have a role in ATRA-induced apoptosis in AML cells and down-regulation of bcl-2 is related to it. In view of the previously published studies, the present results underline the fact that the timing of apoptotic events, such as fragmentation of DNA, externalization of phosphatidylserine, cytochrome c efflux, change in mitochondrial membrane potential and cleavage of PARP, are, to a notable extent, cell type and inducer-dependent.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces growth arrest and apoptosis in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) cells. Since cellular redox state regulates these events, we were interested in studying whether it has any role in the responsiveness of AML cells to ATRA. DESIGN AND METHODS: Two human AML cell lines, the ATRA-sensitive OU-AML-3, and the ATRA-resistant OU-AML-7, were used as models. Clonogenic cell culture assay, annexin V method, and measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential were used for the determination of cell growth and apoptosis. Peroxide formation was analyzed by flow cytometry, glutathione and g-glutamylcysteine synthetase (g-GCS) activity was determined spectrophotometrically, and the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) by Western blotting. RESULTS: ATRA inhibited clonogenic cell growth and induced apoptosis particularly in OU-AML-3 cells. The OU-AML-7 cells had a higher basal level of glutathione and g-GCS activity than the OU-AML-3 cells. ATRA enhanced the generation of peroxides after 24h exposure, which was more prominent in the sensitive than the resistant cell line and was not preventable by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. ATRA also increased the activity of g-GCS, which was associated with increased intracellular glutathione in the resistant cell line, while the glutathione level was maintained in the sensitive cell line. During ATRA exposure, MnSOD was induced in the sensitive cell line, but not until after 72 h. Buthionine sulfoximine significantly increased the inhibitory effect of ATRA on colony formation in both cell lines, but only marginally enhanced the effect of ATRA on the induction of apoptosis. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The balance between oxidative and antioxidative actions of ATRA, as well as the basal redox state of the cells seem to have a definite influence on the responsiveness of AML cells to ATRA.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive values of c-erbB-2 in breast cancer. 650 patients were enrolled. The amplification/overexpression of c-erbB-2 from fresh frozen or paraffin-embedded breast tumour tissue samples was analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique (75%), immunohistochemically (17%) or by Southern blot analysis (8%). 126 patients (19%) were positive for c-erbB-2. 148 patients developed metastatic disease, but only 35 were positive for c-erbB-2. Positivity for c-erbB-2 was significantly associated with node positivity, large tumour size, high grade of malignancy, low receptor status, postmenopausal status, and with a shorter overall survival. In multivariate regression analysis, only tumour size and nodal involvement were risk factors for poor survival when analysed separately together with c-erbB-2 and receptor status. Metastatic patients with c-erbB-2 positivity had a significantly shorter survival and disease-free survival (DFS) than the c-erbB-2-negative patients. 29 advanced patients with c-erbB-2 positivity showed a poor response rate to hormonal, non-anthracycline-based and anthracycline-based therapies. Positivity for the c-erbB-2 is a poor prognostic factor in breast cancer, but it also emerges as predictive of the response to hormonal or chemotherapy treatment once the disease has recurred.
The present in vitro study shows how interleukin (IL)-6 modulates clonogenic blast cell growth in complex ways in acute myeloblastic leukemia when used either as a single factor or in different hematopoietic growth factor combinations. In the presence of IL-6, the colony numbers in culture assay decreased to 50 +/- 29% from the basal values (p
Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNF) is an autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by massive proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome at birth. CNF represents a unique, apparently specific dysfunction of the renal basement membranes, and the estimated incidence of CNF in the isolated population of Finland is 1 in 8,000 newborns. The basic defect is unknown, and no specific biochemical defect or chromosomal aberrations have been described. Here we report the assignment of the CNF locus to 19q12-q13.1 on the basis of linkage analyses in 17 Finnish families. Multipoint analyses and observed recombination events place the CNF locus between multiallelic markers D19S416 and D19S224, and the significant linkage disequilibrium observed suggests that the CNF gene lies in the immediate vicinity of the markers D19S224 and D19S220.
Inactivation of the Ink4 gene locus locus on 9p comprising the tumour suppressor gene p16ink4a and its neighbours p14ARF and p15ink4b is common in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), but the prognostic significance is controversial. DNA from 230 patients was retrospectively analysed by Southern blotting, single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing techniques. The results were correlated with clinical characteristics and outcome. One hundred and ninety-four fully analysed patients, similarly treated using the Nordic NOPHO-86 or the current NOPHO-92 protocols, were included in the outcome analysis. Deletions approached a minimally deleted region between the p16ink4a and p15ink4b genes, making the p14ARF gene the most commonly deleted coding sequence. Bi-allelic deletion was associated with high white blood cell count (WBC) (P
We wanted to establish a permanent national database system, which can be utilized to study transfusion recipients and blood use in Finland.
A regularly updated register for permanent use was developed. To study the usability of the database, years 2002 and 2003 were further analysed. Database included all transfused patients in major blood-transfusing hospitals from four university and five central hospital districts managing altogether 63% of Finnish inpatient hospital episodes.
Audit of gathered data reveal 96.8% match in adult blood components with Finnish Red Cross, Blood Service sales figures. Model data set includes 59,535 transfused patients (44.3% men and 55.7% women) having received 529,104 blood components. Half of all blood units were transfused in connection with surgical operations. Most of the blood recipients were elderly (51.6% are over 64 years of age). Blood-component use and transfusion-related costs varied widely between hospitals.
Hospital data managing systems can be useful for creating a population-based database system to monitor and compare transfusion practices. This record provides information about transfusion epidemiology for transfusion professionals, hospital management, and hospital administration.