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An outbreak of community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections in southwestern Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30882
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003 Jun;24(6):397-402
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2003
Author
Henry C Baggett
Thomas W Hennessy
Richard Leman
Cindy Hamlin
Dana Bruden
Alisa Reasonover
Patricia Martinez
Jay C Butler
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA.
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003 Jun;24(6):397-402
Date
Jun-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alaska - epidemiology
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Methicillin Resistance
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Retrospective Studies
Rural Population
Staphylococcal Skin Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology
Staphylococcus aureus - isolation & purification
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We investigated a large outbreak of community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in southwestern Alaska to determine the extent of these infections and whether MRSA isolates were likely community acquired. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Rural southwestern Alaska. PATIENTS: All patients with a history of culture-confirmed S. aureus infection from March 1, 1999, through August 10, 2000. RESULTS: More than 80% of culture-confirmed S. aureus infections were methicillin resistant, and 84% of MRSA infections involved skin or soft tissue; invasive disease was rare. Most (77%) of the patients with MRSA skin infections had community-acquired MRSA (no hospitalization, surgery, dialysis, indwelling line or catheter, or admission to a long-term-care facility in the 12 months before infection). Patients with MRSA skin infections were more likely to have received a prescription for an antimicrobial agent in the 180 days before infection than were patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus skin infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the epidemiology of MRSA in rural southwestern Alaska has changed and suggest that the emergence of community-onset MRSA in this region was not related to spread of a hospital organism. Treatment guidelines were developed recommending that beta-lactam antimicrobial agents not be used as a first-line therapy for suspected S. aureus infections.
Notes
Comment In: Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003 Jun;24(6):392-612828313
PubMed ID
12828314 View in PubMed
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Antibody Levels and Protection After Hepatitis B Vaccine: Results of a 30-Year Follow-up Study and Response to a Booster Dose.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282857
Source
J Infect Dis. 2016 Jul 01;214(1):16-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-01-2016
Author
Michael G Bruce
Dana Bruden
Debby Hurlburt
Carolyn Zanis
Gail Thompson
Lisa Rea
Michele Toomey
Lisa Townshend-Bulson
Karen Rudolph
Lisa Bulkow
Philip R Spradling
Richard Baum
Thomas Hennessy
Brian J McMahon
Source
J Infect Dis. 2016 Jul 01;214(1):16-22
Date
Jul-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alaska
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hepatitis B - immunology - prevention & control
Hepatitis B Antibodies - blood - immunology
Hepatitis B Vaccines - immunology
Humans
Immunity, Active - immunology
Immunization, Secondary
Male
Middle Aged
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The duration of protection in children and adults resulting from hepatitis B vaccination is unknown. In 1981, we immunized a cohort of 1578 Alaska Native adults and children from 15 Alaska communities aged =6 months using 3 doses of plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine.
Persons were tested for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) levels 30 years after receiving the primary series. Those with levels
PubMed ID
26802139 View in PubMed
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Antimicrobial resistance among Helicobacter pylori isolates in Alaska, 2000-2016.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292657
Source
J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2018 Jun 30; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-30-2018
Author
Emily Mosites
Dana Bruden
Julie Morris
Alisa Reasonover
Karen Rudolph
Debra Hurlburt
Thomas Hennessy
Brian McMahon
Michael Bruce
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4055 Tudor Centre Dr, Anchorage, Alaska 99508. Electronic address: lwx7@cdc.gov.
Source
J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2018 Jun 30; :
Date
Jun-30-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Alaska Native people experience a high burden of Helicobacter pylori infection and concomitant high rates of gastric cancer. Additionally, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant strains of H. pylori has been shown to be high in Alaska. We evaluated antimicrobial resistance over time among sentinel surveillance isolates and assessed risk factors for carrying resistant H. pylori.
Through Alaska's H. pylori sentinel surveillance system, we collected and cultured antral and fundal biopsies from Alaska Native patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy for clinical indications during 2000-2016. For positive cultures, we performed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing for metronidazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin.
We tested 800H. pylori isolates obtained from 763 patients. Metronidazole resistance was most common (342/800; 43%), followed by clarithromycin resistance (238/800; 30%), resistance to both clarithromycin and metronidazole (128/800; 16%), and levofloxacin resistance (113/800; 15%). Low proportions of isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and tetracycline. Levofloxacin resistance increased between 2000 and 2016 (p
PubMed ID
29969753 View in PubMed
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Cascade of Care for Alaska Native People With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Statewide Program With High Linkage to Care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303078
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 15; 70(9):2005-2007
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-15-2020
Author
Brian J Mcmahon
Lisa Townshend-Bulson
Chriss Homan
Prabhu Gounder
Youssef Barbour
Annette Hewitt
Dana Bruden
Hannah Espera
Julia Plotnik
James Gove
Timothy J Stevenson
Sarah V Luna
Brenna C Simons
Author Affiliation
Liver Disease and Hepatitis Program, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, Alaska.
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 15; 70(9):2005-2007
Date
Apr-15-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Most persons with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the United States are undiagnosed or linked to care. We describe a program for the management of Alaska Native patients infection utilizing a computerized registry and statewide liver clinics resulting in higher linkage to care (86%) than national estimates (~25%).
PubMed ID
31504307 View in PubMed
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Changes in antibiotic-prescribing practices and carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: A controlled intervention trial in rural Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190037
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jun 15;34(12):1543-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-2002
Author
Thomas W Hennessy
Kenneth M Petersen
Dana Bruden
Alan J Parkinson
Debby Hurlburt
Marilyn Getty
Benjamin Schwartz
Jay C Butler
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, AK, 99508, USA. thennessy@cdc.gov
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jun 15;34(12):1543-50
Date
Jun-15-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Drug Prescriptions
Drug Utilization
Humans
Intervention Studies
Patient Education as Topic
Penicillin resistance
Physician's Practice Patterns
Pneumococcal Vaccines - immunology - pharmacology
Prospective Studies
Serotyping
Streptococcus pneumoniae - classification - drug effects - immunology
Abstract
From 1998 to 2000, 13 rural Alaskan villages (population, 3326) were surveyed annually by nasopharyngeal cultures for Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage. Data regarding antibiotic use for the entire population was abstracted from clinic records. In 1999, education of medical providers and the community about appropriate antibiotic use began in 4 villages; this program was expanded to include all villages in 2000. Antibiotic courses per person decreased by 31% in the initial intervention villages and by 35% in the remaining villages after education (P
PubMed ID
12032887 View in PubMed
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Characterization of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genotypes among Alaskans and their correlation with clinical disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132984
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Sep;49(9):3114-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Karen Miernyk
Julie Morris
Dana Bruden
Brian McMahon
Debby Hurlburt
Frank Sacco
Alan Parkinson
Thomas Hennessy
Michael Bruce
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4055 Tudor Centre Dr., Anchorage, AK 99517, USA. kmiernyk@cdc.gov
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Sep;49(9):3114-21
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alaska
Antigens, Bacterial - genetics
Bacterial Proteins - genetics
Biopsy
Esophagitis - epidemiology - microbiology
Female
Gastric Mucosa - microbiology
Genotype
Helicobacter Infections - complications - microbiology - pathology
Helicobacter pylori - genetics - isolation & purification
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Peptic Ulcer - epidemiology - microbiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Virulence Factors - genetics
Young Adult
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori infection is common in Alaska. The development of severe H. pylori disease is partially determined by the virulence of the infecting strain. Here we present vacA and cagA genotype data for H. pylori strains isolated from Alaskans and their correlation with clinical disease. We enrolled patients scheduled for esophagogastroduodenoscopy and positive for H. pylori infection. Gastric biopsy specimens from the stomach antrum and fundus were cultured. We performed PCR analysis of the H. pylori vacA gene and for the presence of the cagA gene and cagA empty site. We genotyped 515 H. pylori samples from 220 Native and 66 non-Native Alaskans. We detected the cagA gene in 242/286 (85%) persons; of 222 strains that could be subtyped, 95% (212) were non-Asian cagA and 3% (6) were East Asian cagA. After removing mixed infections (n = 17), 83% of H. pylori strains had either the vacA s1m1 (120/269) or s2m2 (103/269) genotype. Sixty-six percent (68/103) of H. pylori strains with the vacA s2m2 genotype also contained the cagA gene. Infection with an H. pylori strain having the cagA gene or vacA s1m1 genotype (compared with s1m2 and s2m2) was associated with a decreased risk of esophagitis (P = 0.003 and 0.0003, respectively). Infection with an H. pylori strain having the vacA s1m1 genotype (compared with s1m2 and s2m2) was associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) (P = 0.003). The majority of H. pylori strains in this study carried the non-Asian cagA gene and either the vacA s1m1 or s2m2 genotype. A majority of H. pylori strains with the vacA s2m2 genotype also contained the cagA gene. There was an association of H. pylori genotype with esophagitis and PUD.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21752979 View in PubMed
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Characterizing wild bird contact and seropositivity to highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in Alaskan residents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263027
Source
Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2014 Sep;8(5):516-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Carrie Reed
Dana Bruden
Kathy K Byrd
Vic Veguilla
Michael Bruce
Debby Hurlburt
David Wang
Crystal Holiday
Kathy Hancock
Justin R Ortiz
Joe Klejka
Jacqueline M Katz
Timothy M Uyeki
Source
Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2014 Sep;8(5):516-23
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alaska - epidemiology
Animal Migration
Animals
Animals, Wild - physiology - virology
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Birds - physiology - virology
Child
Contact Tracing
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype - immunology - physiology
Influenza in Birds - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Influenza, Human - blood - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Male
Middle Aged
Young Adult
Zoonoses - blood - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have infected poultry and wild birds on three continents with more than 600 reported human cases (59% mortality) since 2003. Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza A viruses, and migratory birds have been documented with HPAI H5N1 virus infection. Since 2005, clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to many countries.
We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey in Anchorage and western Alaska to identify possible behaviors associated with migratory bird exposure and measure seropositivity to HPAI H5N1.
We enrolled rural subsistence bird hunters and their families, urban sport hunters, wildlife biologists, and a comparison group without bird contact. We interviewed participants regarding their exposures to wild birds and collected blood to perform serologic testing for antibodies against a clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 virus strain.
Hunters and wildlife biologists reported exposures to wild migratory birds that may confer risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses, although none of the 916 participants had evidence of seropositivity to HPAI H5N1.
We characterized wild bird contact among Alaskans and behaviors that may influence risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses. Such knowledge can inform surveillance and risk communication surrounding HPAI H5N1 and other influenza viruses in a population with exposure to wild birds at a crossroads of intercontinental migratory flyways.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24828535 View in PubMed
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Closer to home: local care improves compliance with RSV prophylaxis in high-risk infants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58085
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Feb;65(1):4-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2006
Author
Rosalyn J Singleton
Dana Bruden
Lisa Brooks
Jenni DeLeon
Anna Vercelline
Jay C Butler
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA. ris2@cdc.gov
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Feb;65(1):4-7
Date
Feb-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
PubMed ID
16544642 View in PubMed
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Community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with antibiotic use and the cytotoxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin during a furunculosis outbreak in rural Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6677
Source
J Infect Dis. 2004 May 1;189(9):1565-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2004
Author
Henry C Baggett
Thomas W Hennessy
Karen Rudolph
Dana Bruden
Alisa Reasonover
Alan Parkinson
Rachel Sparks
Rodney M Donlan
Patricia Martinez
Kanokporn Mongkolrattanothai
Jay C Butler
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA.
Source
J Infect Dis. 2004 May 1;189(9):1565-73
Date
May-1-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alaska - epidemiology
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Exotoxins - metabolism
Female
Furunculosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Leukocidins - genetics - metabolism
Male
Methicillin - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Methicillin Resistance
Population Surveillance
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Rural Population
Staphylococcus aureus - drug effects - genetics - metabolism
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) reports are increasing, and infections often involve soft tissue. During a CO-MRSA skin infection outbreak in Alaska, we assessed risk factors for disease and whether a virulence factor, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), could account for the high rates of MRSA skin infection in this region. METHODS: We conducted S. aureus surveillance in the outbreak region and a case-control study in 1 community, comparing 34 case patients with MRSA skin infection with 94 control subjects. An assessment of traditional saunas was performed. S. aureus isolates from regional surveillance were screened for PVL genes by use of polymerase chain reaction, and isolate relatedness was determined by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: Case patients received more antibiotic courses during the 12 months before the outbreak than did control subjects (median, 4 vs. 2 courses; P=.01) and were more likely to use MRSA-colonized saunas than were control subjects (44% vs. 13%; age-adjusted odds ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-12). The PVL genes were present in 110 (97%) of 113 MRSA isolates, compared with 0 of 81 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates (P
PubMed ID
15116291 View in PubMed
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The effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on iron stores and iron deficiency in urban Alaska Native adults

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature312340
Source
Helicobacter . 2013 Jun;18(3):222-8.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
  1 document  
Author
Karen Miernyk
Dana Bruden
Carolyn Zanis
Brian McMahon
Frank Sacco
Thomas Hennessy
Alan Parkinson
Michael Bruce
Source
Helicobacter . 2013 Jun;18(3):222-8.
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
File Size
131252
Keywords
Alaska
Adult
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency
Complications
Drug Therapy
Epidemiology
Etiology
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Therapeutic use
Female
Ferritins
Blood
Helicobacter Infections
Microbiology
Helicobacter pylori
Isolation and purification
Humans
Indians, North American
Inuits
Iron
Metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Urban Population
Abstract
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been correlated with low serum ferritin and iron deficiency. As a secondary analysis of a study of H. pylori reinfection, we investigated the association of H. pylori infection and the effect of its eradication on serum ferritin and iron deficiency.
Methods: Alaska Native adults undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy had sera collected and a (13) C urea breath test (UBT) was performed. Those H. pylori positive were treated with an antibiotic regimen; those who tested negative 2 months after treatment were evaluated at 4, 6, 12, and 24 months by UBT and serum ferritin with an immunoradiometric assay. We excluded persons from further analysis if they were prescribed iron by their provider.
Results: We measured serum ferritin for 241 persons; 121/241 were H. pylori positive. The geometric mean ferritin (GMF) for persons with and without H. pylori infection was 37 µg/L and 50 µg/L, respectively (p = .04). At enrollment, 19/121 H. pylori-positive persons had iron deficiency compared with 8/120 H. pylori negative (p = .02). Among 66 persons tested at 24 months, the GMF was higher at 24 months (49.6 µg/L) versus enrollment (36.5 µg/L; p = .02). Six of 11 persons with iron deficiency at enrollment no longer had iron deficiency and had a higher GMF (p = .02) 24 months after treatment.
Conclusions: H. pylori infection was correlated with lower serum ferritin and iron deficiency. After H. pylori eradication, serum ferritin increased and approximately half of persons resolved their iron deficiency. Testing for H. pylori infection and subsequent treatment of those positive could be considered in persons with unexplained iron deficiency.
PubMed ID
23316928 View in PubMed
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43 records – page 1 of 5.