In Poland 120 measles cases were registered in 2006 (0.31 per 100,000 population). It was a substantial increase, compared to the years 2002-2005, when the number of locally-acquired cases was inferior to 1 case per 1 000 000 inhabitants. Three cases were linked to a large Ukrainian outbreak, including the 2006 index case on the Polish territory. Out of 106 cases with vaccination history available, 62 (58%) were not vaccinated, 26 (25%) were fully vaccinated (including 16 laboratory confirmed), and 18 (17%)--incompletely vaccinated. The most affected age groups were children under 2 years of age (incidence 2.62 per 100,000 population), 5-year olds (1.08), and adults aged 25-29 years (1.09). In 20 cases complications were seen, including pneumonia (n = 10) and otitis media (n = 6). 75 measles cases (63%) were hospitalized, no deaths were recorded. The 2006 outbreak lead to a substantial improvement of measles surveillance performance. Two hundred eighty-nine suspect cases were reported, of which 252 (89%) were tested serologically for measles. Additionally, molecular testing of suspect cases was introduced in 2006. The first isolated virus strains belong to the D4 and D5 genotypes, not related to the Ukrainian outbreak. In order to properly document measles elimination during following year, high sensitivity of rash-like illness surveillance should be maintained, and isolation of viral strains from each chain of infection should be attempted.