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Can profiles of poly- and Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum provide information on major exposure sources?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289389
Source
Environ Health. 2018 Feb 01; 17(1):11
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-01-2018
Author
Xindi C Hu
Clifton Dassuncao
Xianming Zhang
Philippe Grandjean
Pál Weihe
Glenys M Webster
Flemming Nielsen
Elsie M Sunderland
Author Affiliation
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. xhu@mail.harvard.edu.
Source
Environ Health. 2018 Feb 01; 17(1):11
Date
Feb-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from diverse sources and this has been associated with negative health impacts. Advances in analytical methods have enabled routine detection of more than 15 PFASs in human sera, allowing better profiling of PFAS exposures. The composition of PFASs in human sera reflects the complexity of exposure sources but source identification can be confounded by differences in toxicokinetics affecting uptake, distribution, and elimination. Common PFASs, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and their precursors are ubiquitous in multiple exposure sources. However, their composition varies among sources, which may impact associated adverse health effects.
We use available PFAS concentrations from several demographic groups in a North Atlantic seafood consuming population (Faroe Islands) to explore whether chemical fingerprints in human sera provide insights into predominant exposure sources. We compare serum PFAS profiles from Faroese individuals to other North American populations to investigate commonalities in potential exposure sources. We compare individuals with similar demographic and physiological characteristics and samples from the same years to reduce confounding by toxicokinetic differences and changing environmental releases.
Using principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed by hierarchical clustering, we assess variability in serum PFAS concentrations across three Faroese groups. The first principal component (PC)/cluster consists of C9-C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and is consistent with measured PFAS profiles in consumed seafood. The second PC/cluster includes perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and the PFOS precursor N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA), which are directly used or metabolized from fluorochemicals in consumer products such as carpet and food packaging. We find that the same compounds are associated with the same exposure sources in two North American populations, suggesting generalizability of results from the Faroese population.
We conclude that PFAS homologue profiles in serum provide valuable information on major exposure sources. It is essential to compare samples collected at similar time periods and to correct for demographic groups that are highly affected by differences in physiological processes (e.g., pregnancy). Information on PFAS homologue profiles is crucial for attributing adverse health effects to the proper mixtures or individual PFASs.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29391068 View in PubMed
Less detail

Can profiles of poly- and Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum provide information on major exposure sources?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296906
Source
Environ Health. 2018 02 01; 17(1):11
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
02-01-2018
Author
Xindi C Hu
Clifton Dassuncao
Xianming Zhang
Philippe Grandjean
Pál Weihe
Glenys M Webster
Flemming Nielsen
Elsie M Sunderland
Author Affiliation
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. xhu@mail.harvard.edu.
Source
Environ Health. 2018 02 01; 17(1):11
Date
02-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alkanesulfonic Acids - blood
Child
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Prospective Studies
United States
Young Adult
Abstract
Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from diverse sources and this has been associated with negative health impacts. Advances in analytical methods have enabled routine detection of more than 15 PFASs in human sera, allowing better profiling of PFAS exposures. The composition of PFASs in human sera reflects the complexity of exposure sources but source identification can be confounded by differences in toxicokinetics affecting uptake, distribution, and elimination. Common PFASs, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and their precursors are ubiquitous in multiple exposure sources. However, their composition varies among sources, which may impact associated adverse health effects.
We use available PFAS concentrations from several demographic groups in a North Atlantic seafood consuming population (Faroe Islands) to explore whether chemical fingerprints in human sera provide insights into predominant exposure sources. We compare serum PFAS profiles from Faroese individuals to other North American populations to investigate commonalities in potential exposure sources. We compare individuals with similar demographic and physiological characteristics and samples from the same years to reduce confounding by toxicokinetic differences and changing environmental releases.
Using principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed by hierarchical clustering, we assess variability in serum PFAS concentrations across three Faroese groups. The first principal component (PC)/cluster consists of C9-C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and is consistent with measured PFAS profiles in consumed seafood. The second PC/cluster includes perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and the PFOS precursor N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA), which are directly used or metabolized from fluorochemicals in consumer products such as carpet and food packaging. We find that the same compounds are associated with the same exposure sources in two North American populations, suggesting generalizability of results from the Faroese population.
We conclude that PFAS homologue profiles in serum provide valuable information on major exposure sources. It is essential to compare samples collected at similar time periods and to correct for demographic groups that are highly affected by differences in physiological processes (e.g., pregnancy). Information on PFAS homologue profiles is crucial for attributing adverse health effects to the proper mixtures or individual PFASs.
PubMed ID
29391068 View in PubMed
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Shifting Global Exposures to Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) Evident in Longitudinal Birth Cohorts from a Seafood-Consuming Population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290179
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2018 Mar 20; 52(6):3738-3747
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-20-2018
Author
Clifton Dassuncao
Xindi C Hu
Flemming Nielsen
Pál Weihe
Philippe Grandjean
Elsie M Sunderland
Author Affiliation
Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health , Boston , Massachusetts 02215 , United States.
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2018 Mar 20; 52(6):3738-3747
Date
Mar-20-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Rapid declines in legacy poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been reported in human populations globally following changes in production since 2000. However, changes in exposure sources are not well understood. Here, we report serum concentrations of 19 PFASs (?19PFAS) measured in children between 1993 and 2012 from a North Atlantic fishing community (Faroe Islands). Median ?19PFAS concentrations in children (ages 5-13 years) peaked in 2000 (47.7 ng mL-1) and declined significantly by 14.4% year-1 until 2012. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified two groups of PFASs that likely reflect exposures from diverse consumer products and a third group that consisted of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with nine or more carbons (C = 9). These C = 9 PFASs are strongly associated with mercury in children's hair, a well-established proxy for seafood consumption, especially perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA, r = 0.72). Toxicokinetic modeling shows PFAS exposures from seafood have become increasingly important (53% of perfluorooctanesulfonate, PFOS, in 2012), despite a decline in whale consumption in recent years. We infer that even in a major seafood-consuming population, declines in legacy PFAS exposure after 2000 were achieved by the rapid phase out of PFOS and its precursors in consumer products. These results emphasize the importance of better understanding exposures to replacement PFASs in these sources.
PubMed ID
29516726 View in PubMed
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Vertical Profiles, Sources and Transport of PFASs in the Arctic Ocean.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282543
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2017 May 17;
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-17-2017
Author
Leo Wai-Yin Yeung
Clifton Dassuncao
Scott Andrew Mabury
Elsie M Sunderland
Xianming Zhang
Rainer Lohmann
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2017 May 17;
Date
May-17-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The relative importance of atmospheric versus oceanic transport for poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) reaching the Arctic Ocean is not well understood. Vertical profiles from the Central Arctic Ocean and shelf water, snow and meltwater samples were collected in 2012; 13 PFASs (C6-C12 PFCAs; C6, 8, 10 PFSAs; MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA, and FOSA) were routinely detected (range:
PubMed ID
28513149 View in PubMed
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