Inherited retinal dystrophies represent the most important cause of vision impairment in adolescence, affecting approximately 1 out of 3000 individuals. Mutations of the photoreceptor-specific gene ABCA4 (ABCR) are a common cause of retinal dystrophy. A number of mutations have been repeatedly reported for this gene, notably the 2588G>C mutation which is frequent in both patients and controls. Here we ascertained the frequency of the 2588G>C mutation in a total of 2343 unrelated random control individuals from 11 European countries and 241 control individuals from the US, as well as in 614 patients with STGD both from Europe and the US. We found an overall carrier frequency of 1 out of 54 in Europe, compared with 1 out of 121 in the US, confirming that the 2588G>C ABCA4 mutation is one of the most frequent autosomal recessive mutations in the European population. Carrier frequencies show an increasing gradient in Europe from South-West to North-East. The lowest carrier frequency, 0 out of 199 (0%), was found in Portugal; the highest, 11 out of 197 (5.5%), was found in Sweden. Haplotype analysis in 16 families segregating the 2588G>C mutation showed four intragenic polymorphisms invariably present in all 16 disease chromosomes and sharing of the same allele for several markers flanking the ABCA4 locus in most of the disease chromosomes. These results indicate a single origin of the 2588G>C mutation which, to our best estimate, occurred between 2400 and 3000 years ago.
One of the leading causes of blindness in the world is glaucoma. The most common form is primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The only gene identified so far as being associated with POAG is the MYOC gene; 2-4% of the patients have been reported to carry mutations in this gene. Exfoliative glaucoma is a secondary glaucoma, in which one of the symptoms is exfoliations on the lens capsule and anterior segment of the eye. No gene has been identified as being associated with this variant. The aim of the present study was to analyze Swedish patient material for allelic variants and mutations in the coding region of the MYOC gene. Two hundred patients with POAG and 200 with exfoliative glaucoma were analyzed using enzymatic cleavage assay and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC). An age-matched control group (n = 200), in whom glaucoma had been excluded, was also analyzed using dHPLC. Eight allele variants were identified, two of which were determined to be disease-causing mutations. These two disease-causing mutations were only found in POAG patients, indicating a prevalence of 1% in this patient group. This frequency is lower than that reported in other studies of other populations. No disease-causing mutations were found in the exfoliative glaucoma patients, indicating a fundamentally different genetic basis for that glaucoma variant.
Glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness in the world, is characterized by neuropathy of the retinal ganglion cells and the optic nerve. Recently, sequence alterations in the optineurin gene were shown to be associated with the disease in families with primarily normal tension glaucoma.
In the present study, 200 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, 200 patients with exfoliative glaucoma, and 200 matched controls were tested for alterations in the coding sequences using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and sequencing. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms distributed throughout the gene were typed and haplotypes were constructed.
No disease-causing alterations were found in either of the patient cohorts. The risk-associated allele M98K was found in equal amounts in both patients and controls. Analysis of haplotype frequencies and distribution revealed high haplotype diversity but no differences between patients and controls.
These experiments show no association between optineurin and our Swedish cohorts of high-pressure glaucoma cases, either in coding sequence or in haplotype frequency and distribution.
Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. A genome-wide search yielded multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 15q24.1 region associated with glaucoma. Further investigation revealed that the association is confined to exfoliation glaucoma (XFG). Two nonsynonymous SNPs in exon 1 of the gene LOXL1 explain the association, and the data suggest that they confer risk of XFG mainly through exfoliation syndrome (XFS). About 25% of the general population is homozygous for the highest-risk haplotype, and their risk of suffering from XFG is more than 100 times that of individuals carrying only low-risk haplotypes. The population-attributable risk is more than 99%. The product of LOXL1 catalyzes the formation of elastin fibers found to be a major component of the lesions in XFG.
Comment In: Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Dec;144(6):974-97518036875