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Experiment, monitoring, and gradient methods used to infer climate change effects on plant communities yield consistent patterns.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259277
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Dec 29;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-29-2014
Author
Sarah C Elmendorf
Gregory H R Henry
Robert D Hollister
Anna Maria Fosaa
William A Gould
Luise Hermanutz
Annika Hofgaard
Ingibjörg I Jónsdóttir
Janet C Jorgenson
Esther Lévesque
Borgþór Magnusson
Ulf Molau
Isla H Myers-Smith
Steven F Oberbauer
Christian Rixen
Craig E Tweedie
Marilyn Walker
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Dec 29;
Date
Dec-29-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Inference about future climate change impacts typically relies on one of three approaches: manipulative experiments, historical comparisons (broadly defined to include monitoring the response to ambient climate fluctuations using repeat sampling of plots, dendroecology, and paleoecology techniques), and space-for-time substitutions derived from sampling along environmental gradients. Potential limitations of all three approaches are recognized. Here we address the congruence among these three main approaches by comparing the degree to which tundra plant community composition changes (i) in response to in situ experimental warming, (ii) with interannual variability in summer temperature within sites, and (iii) over spatial gradients in summer temperature. We analyzed changes in plant community composition from repeat sampling (85 plant communities in 28 regions) and experimental warming studies (28 experiments in 14 regions) throughout arctic and alpine North America and Europe. Increases in the relative abundance of species with a warmer thermal niche were observed in response to warmer summer temperatures using all three methods; however, effect sizes were greater over broad-scale spatial gradients relative to either temporal variability in summer temperature within a site or summer temperature increases induced by experimental warming. The effect sizes for change over time within a site and with experimental warming were nearly identical. These results support the view that inferences based on space-for-time substitution overestimate the magnitude of responses to contemporary climate warming, because spatial gradients reflect long-term processes. In contrast, in situ experimental warming and monitoring approaches yield consistent estimates of the magnitude of response of plant communities to climate warming.
PubMed ID
25548195 View in PubMed
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Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites: implications for convergence across northern latitudes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279042
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Jan 11;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-11-2017
Author
Janet Prevéy
Mark Vellend
Nadja Rüger
Robert D Hollister
Anne D Bjorkman
Isla H Myers-Smith
Sarah C Elmendorf
Karin Clark
Elisabeth J Cooper
Bo Elberling
Anna Maria Fosaa
Gregory H R Henry
Toke T Høye
Ingibjörg Svala Jónsdóttir
Kari Klanderud
Esther Lévesque
Marguerite Mauritz
Ulf Molau
Susan M Natali
Steven F Oberbauer
Zoe A Panchen
Eric Post
Sabine B Rumpf
Niels M Schmidt
Ted Schuur
Phillip R Semenchuk
Tiffany Troxler
Jeffrey M Welker
Christian Rixen
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Jan 11;
Date
Jan-11-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher-latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance at colder sites. To test this hypothesis, we examined up to 20 years of phenology data for 47 tundra plant species at 18 high-latitude sites along a climatic gradient. Across all species, the timing of leaf emergence and flowering were more sensitive to a given increase in summer temperature at colder than warmer high-latitude locations. A similar pattern was seen over time for the flowering phenology of a widespread species, Cassiope tetragona. These are among the first results highlighting differential phenological responses of plants across a climatic gradient, and suggest the possibility of convergence in flowering times and therefore an increase in gene flow across latitudes as the climate warms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
28079308 View in PubMed
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Growth and phenology of three dwarf shrub species in a six-year soil warming experiment at the alpine treeline.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267621
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e100577
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Alba Anadon-Rosell
Christian Rixen
Paolo Cherubini
Sonja Wipf
Frank Hagedorn
Melissa A Dawes
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e100577
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, physiological - physiology
Carbon Dioxide - metabolism
Ecosystem
Ericaceae - classification - physiology
Nitrogen - metabolism
Plant Shoots - growth & development
Soil - chemistry
Temperature
Vaccinium - classification - physiology
Abstract
Global warming can have substantial impacts on the phenological and growth patterns of alpine and Arctic species, resulting in shifts in plant community composition and ecosystem dynamics. We evaluated the effects of a six-year experimental soil warming treatment (+4?C, 2007-2012) on the phenology and growth of three co-dominant dwarf shrub species growing in the understory of Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata at treeline in the Swiss Alps. We monitored vegetative and reproductive phenology of Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Empetrum hermaphroditum throughout the early growing season of 2012 and, following a major harvest at peak season, we measured the biomass of above-ground ramet fractions. For all six years of soil warming we measured annual shoot growth of the three species and analyzed ramet age and xylem ring width of V. myrtillus. Our results show that phenology of the three species was more influenced by snowmelt timing, and also by plot tree species (Larix or Pinus) in the case of V. myrtillus, than by soil warming. However, the warming treatment led to increased V. myrtillus total above-ground ramet biomass (+36% in 2012), especially new shoot biomass (+63% in 2012), as well as increased new shoot increment length and xylem ring width (+22% and +41%, respectively; average for 2007-2012). These results indicate enhanced overall growth of V. myrtillus under soil warming that was sustained over six years and was not caused by an extended growing period in early summer. In contrast, E. hermaphroditum only showed a positive shoot growth response to warming in 2011 (+21%), and V. gaultherioides showed no significant growth response. Our results indicate that V. myrtillus might have a competitive advantage over the less responsive co-occurring dwarf shrub species under future global warming.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24956273 View in PubMed
Less detail

The Response of the Alpine Dwarf Shrub Salix herbacea to Altered Snowmelt Timing: Lessons from a Multi-Site Transplant Experiment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262037
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0122395
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Janosch Sedlacek
Julia A Wheeler
Andrés J Cortés
Oliver Bossdorf
Guenter Hoch
Christian Lexer
Sonja Wipf
Sophie Karrenberg
Mark van Kleunen
Christian Rixen
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0122395
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Climate change is altering spring snowmelt patterns in alpine and arctic ecosystems, and these changes may alter plant phenology, growth and reproduction. To predict how alpine plants respond to shifts in snowmelt timing, we need to understand trait plasticity, its effects on growth and reproduction, and the degree to which plants experience a home-site advantage. We tested how the common, long-lived dwarf shrub Salix herbacea responded to changing spring snowmelt time by reciprocally transplanting turfs of S. herbacea between early-exposure ridge and late-exposure snowbed microhabitats. After the transplant, we monitored phenological, morphological and fitness traits, as well as leaf damage, during two growing seasons. Salix herbacea leafed out earlier, but had a longer development time and produced smaller leaves on ridges relative to snowbeds. Longer phenological development times and smaller leaves were associated with reduced sexual reproduction on ridges. On snowbeds, larger leaves and intermediate development times were associated with increased clonal reproduction. Clonal and sexual reproduction showed no response to altered snowmelt time. We found no home-site advantage in terms of sexual and clonal reproduction. Leaf damage probability depended on snowmelt and thus exposure period, but had no short-term effect on fitness traits. We conclude that the studied populations of S. herbacea can respond to shifts in snowmelt by plastic changes in phenology and leaf size, while maintaining levels of clonal and sexual reproduction. The lack of a home-site advantage suggests that S. herbacea may not be adapted to different microhabitats. The studied populations are thus unlikely to react to climate change by rapid adaptation, but their responses will also not be constrained by small-scale local adaptation. In the short term, snowbed plants may persist due to high stem densities. However, in the long term, reduction in leaf size and flowering, a longer phenological development time and increased exposure to damage may decrease overall performance of S. herbacea under earlier snowmelt.
PubMed ID
25893438 View in PubMed
Less detail

Shrub growth and plant diversity along an elevation gradient: Evidence of indirect effects of climate on alpine ecosystems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294170
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0196653
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Francesco Boscutti
Valentino Casolo
Paola Beraldo
Enrico Braidot
Marco Zancani
Christian Rixen
Author Affiliation
Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, Plant Biology Unit, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0196653
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Altitude
Climate
Ecosystem
Plant Shoots - growth & development - physiology
Rhododendron - growth & development
Vaccinium myrtillus - growth & development
Abstract
Enhanced shrub growth and expansion are widespread responses to climate warming in many arctic and alpine ecosystems. Warmer temperatures and shrub expansion could cause major changes in plant community structure, affecting both species composition and diversity. To improve our understanding of the ongoing changes in plant communities in alpine tundra, we studied interrelations among climate, shrub growth, shrub cover and plant diversity, using an elevation gradient as a proxy for climate conditions. Specifically, we analyzed growth of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and its associated plant communities along an elevation gradient of ca. 600 vertical meters in the eastern European Alps. We assessed the ramet age, ring width and shoot length of V. myrtillus, and the shrub cover and plant diversity of the community. At higher elevation, ramets of V. myrtillus were younger, with shorter shoots and narrower growth rings. Shoot length was positively related to shrub cover, but shrub cover did not show a direct relationship with elevation. A greater shrub cover had a negative effect on species richness, also affecting species composition (beta-diversity), but these variables were not influenced by elevation. Our findings suggest that changes in plant diversity are driven directly by shrub cover and only indirectly by climate, here represented by changes in elevation.
Notes
Cites: PLoS One. 2015 Apr 20;10(4):e0122395 PMID 25893438
Cites: Ecology. 2009 Feb;90(2):363-8 PMID 19323220
Cites: Science. 2009 Sep 11;325(5946):1355-8 PMID 19745143
Cites: PLoS One. 2016 Jun 07;11(6):e0157136 PMID 27270445
Cites: Nature. 2007 Aug 2;448(7153):550-2 PMID 17671497
Cites: Ecol Lett. 2012 Feb;15(2):164-75 PMID 22136670
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Cites: PLoS One. 2016 Apr 13;11(4):e0152636 PMID 27074023
Cites: Nat Methods. 2012 Jul;9(7):671-5 PMID 22930834
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Cites: Am Nat. 1992 Dec;140(6):893-911 PMID 19426029
Cites: PLoS One. 2015 Jun 03;10(6):e0126228 PMID 26039073
Cites: New Phytol. 2010 Jun;186(4):890-9 PMID 20345642
Cites: Am Nat. 2002 Mar;159(3):294-304 PMID 18707381
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jan 31;103(5):1342-6 PMID 16428292
Cites: PLoS One. 2014 Jun 23;9(6):e100577 PMID 24956273
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2007 Nov;22(11):569-74 PMID 17988759
PubMed ID
29698464 View in PubMed
Less detail

Shrub growth and plant diversity along an elevation gradient: Evidence of indirect effects of climate on alpine ecosystems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291389
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0196653
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2018
Author
Francesco Boscutti
Valentino Casolo
Paola Beraldo
Enrico Braidot
Marco Zancani
Christian Rixen
Author Affiliation
Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, Plant Biology Unit, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0196653
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Enhanced shrub growth and expansion are widespread responses to climate warming in many arctic and alpine ecosystems. Warmer temperatures and shrub expansion could cause major changes in plant community structure, affecting both species composition and diversity. To improve our understanding of the ongoing changes in plant communities in alpine tundra, we studied interrelations among climate, shrub growth, shrub cover and plant diversity, using an elevation gradient as a proxy for climate conditions. Specifically, we analyzed growth of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and its associated plant communities along an elevation gradient of ca. 600 vertical meters in the eastern European Alps. We assessed the ramet age, ring width and shoot length of V. myrtillus, and the shrub cover and plant diversity of the community. At higher elevation, ramets of V. myrtillus were younger, with shorter shoots and narrower growth rings. Shoot length was positively related to shrub cover, but shrub cover did not show a direct relationship with elevation. A greater shrub cover had a negative effect on species richness, also affecting species composition (beta-diversity), but these variables were not influenced by elevation. Our findings suggest that changes in plant diversity are driven directly by shrub cover and only indirectly by climate, here represented by changes in elevation.
Notes
Cites: PLoS One. 2015 Apr 20;10(4):e0122395 PMID 25893438
Cites: Ecology. 2009 Feb;90(2):363-8 PMID 19323220
Cites: Science. 2009 Sep 11;325(5946):1355-8 PMID 19745143
Cites: PLoS One. 2016 Jun 07;11(6):e0157136 PMID 27270445
Cites: Nature. 2007 Aug 2;448(7153):550-2 PMID 17671497
Cites: Ecol Lett. 2012 Feb;15(2):164-75 PMID 22136670
Cites: Oecologia. 1986 Nov;70(4):580-586 PMID 28311503
Cites: PLoS One. 2016 Apr 13;11(4):e0152636 PMID 27074023
Cites: Nat Methods. 2012 Jul;9(7):671-5 PMID 22930834
Cites: Nature. 2001 May 31;411(6837):546-7 PMID 11385559
Cites: PLoS One. 2014 Jul 21;9(7):e101716 PMID 25047582
Cites: Ecology. 2006 Mar;87(3):665-74 PMID 16602296
Cites: Am Nat. 1992 Dec;140(6):893-911 PMID 19426029
Cites: PLoS One. 2015 Jun 03;10(6):e0126228 PMID 26039073
Cites: New Phytol. 2010 Jun;186(4):890-9 PMID 20345642
Cites: Am Nat. 2002 Mar;159(3):294-304 PMID 18707381
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jan 31;103(5):1342-6 PMID 16428292
Cites: PLoS One. 2014 Jun 23;9(6):e100577 PMID 24956273
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2007 Nov;22(11):569-74 PMID 17988759
PubMed ID
29698464 View in PubMed
Less detail

6 records – page 1 of 1.